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HISTORY OF THE PEOPLING OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF STR VARIATION IN THE VARIOUS REGIONS .pdf



Nome del file originale: HISTORY OF THE PEOPLING OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF STR VARIATION IN THE VARIOUS REGIONS.pdf
Titolo: STORIA DEL POPOLAMENTO DELL’ITALIA ATTRAVERSO L’ANALISI DELLA VARIAZIONE APLOTIPICHE NELLE VARIE REGIONI
Autore: Vincenzo Passariello

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HISTORY OF THE PEOPLING OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA THROUGH THE ANALYSIS
OF STR VARIATION IN THE VARIOUS REGIONS
By Vincenzo Passariello
INTRODUCTION
This analysis of the genetic make-up of the Italian peninsula was carried out in eight days. It has the
purpose of analysing in detail the various haplogroups of Italy and uncovering their hidden history
in this country. It is the first of a series of yet-to-be-wholly-published analyses about the genetic
history of European countries. Analyses to be published soon include the genetic history of Malta,
Sicily and Sardinia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
TMRCA and AMR have been obtained from haplotypes using the method of Anatole Klyosov’s
paper “DNA Genealogy, mutation rates, and some historical evidence written in the Ychromosome: I. Basic principles and the method”.
Y-STR haplotypes used in this study are from Boattini et al. (2013), “Uniparental markers in Italy
reveal a sex-biased genetic structure and different historical strata”.
Not all haplogroups identified in the tables have been obtained by the study, because the authors
have tested only a limited group of SNPs, therefore a number of haplogroups that are present in the
tables have been extracted comparing a haplogroup’s modal haplotypes (for example, the study
tested only three SNPs for haplogroup G: P15, L140 and M377, but I noted that some haplotypes
identified as P15+ had similarities with other sub-clades of haplogroup G whose SNPs were not
tested by the authors).
Fourteen regions were available for the study. Following is a list of the regions and the number of
samples for each region.















Piemonte = 30 samples
Liguria = 50 samples
Lombardia = 80 samples
Veneto = 70 samples
Emilia-Romagna = 29 samples
Toscana = 123 samples
Umbria = 37 samples
Marche = 40 samples
Abruzzo = 23 samples
Molise = 29 samples
Campania = 36 samples
Basilicata = 25 samples
Puglia = 39 samples
Calabria = 38 samples

Haplogroup R-M269* and sub-clades have been excluded from this study because available data
suggest an entrance in Europe for this haplogroup not later than 5 kya. The only R1b considered is
R1b-M343* because it represents an ancient clade that was introduced in Italy independently from
the other R1b clades.
After the discussion of the results I make Y-STR haplotypes available for the readers.

GLOSSARY
-

AMR = average mutation rate
TMRCA = time to most recent common ancestor
KY(A) = thousands of years (ago)
STR = short tandem repeat
SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism
LGM = last glacial maximum, a period of extreme climatic conditions
LGM refugia = three major places in Europe that saved the European Paleolithic survivors
from dying of the cooling of Central and Eastern Europe. From these refugia Europe was repopulated after the LGM by the remaining hunter-gatherers

RESULTS
TABLE 1: TMRCA FOR ITALIAN HAPLOGROUPS
HAPLOGROUP REGION
CITY
E-M123*
Lombardia
Brescia
Veneto
Vicenza
Veneto
Treviso
Toscana
Grosseto/Siena
E-M183
Emilia-Romagna Bologna
Calabria
Cos/Cat/Cro
E-M35*
Molise
Campobasso
E-M78*
Lombardia
Como
E-M84
Toscana
Grosseto/Siena
Marche
Macerata
Molise
Campobasso
Campania
Benevento
Basilicata
Matera
Puglia
Lecce
Calabria
Cos/Cat/Cro
E-V12
Toscana
Grosseto/Siena
Basilicata
Matera
Calabria
Cos/Cat/Cro
E-V13
Piemonte
Cuneo
Liguria
Savona/Genova
Lombardia
Como
Lombardia
Brescia
Veneto
Vicenza
Veneto
Treviso
Emilia-Romagna Bologna
Toscana
Grosseto/Siena
Toscana
Pistoia
Marche
Macerata
Umbria
Foligno/Perugia
Abruzzo
L’Aquila
Molise
Campobasso
Campania
Benevento
Basilicata
Matera
Puglia
Lecce

AMR
1.08 = 1054
0.583 = 407
0.417 = 263
0.417 = 263
0.083 = 44
0.5 = 331
0.917 = 816
0.917 = 816
0.292 = 170
0.25 = 143
0.333 = 199
0.278 = 162
0.5 = 331
0.167 = 91
0.5 = 331
0.667 = 492
0.25 = 143
0.083 = 44
0.083 = 44
0.214 = 120
0.271 = 157
0.306 = 180
0.183 = 101
0.5 = 331
0.208 = 116
0.2 = 111
0.167 = 91
0.111 = 58
0.167 = 91
0.306 = 180
0.083 = 44
0.25 = 143
0.083 = 44
0.194 = 108

TMRCA (KY)
26.3
10.2
6.6
6.6
1.1
8.3
20.4
20.4
4.2
3.6
5.0
4.0
8.3
2.3
8.3
12.3
3.6
1.1
1.1
3.0
3.9
4.5
2.5
8.3
2.9
2.8
2.3
1.4
2.3
4.5
1.1
3.6
1.1
2.7

E-V22

E-V65
F-M89*

G2a-P15*
G2a3b1a-L140

G2a1-L293
G1a1-L201
G1e
G1b-L830
G2c-M377
I1-M253*

Calabria
Liguria
Veneto
Toscana
Campania
Basilicata
Piemonte
Umbria
Piemonte
Liguria
Veneto
Toscana
Toscana
Piemonte
Veneto
Marche
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
Lombardia
Veneto
Veneto
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Toscana
Toscana
Marche
Umbria
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria
Toscana
Basilicata
Umbria
Campania
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
Lombardia
Veneto
Veneto
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Toscana
Umbria
Molise

Cos/Cat/Cro
Savona/Genova
Vicenza
Grosseto/Siena
Benevento
Matera
Cuneo
Foligno/Perugia
Cuneo
Savona / Genova
Treviso
Grosseto/Siena
Pistoia
Cuneo
Treviso
Macerata
Cuneo
Savona/Genova
Como
Brescia
Vicenza
Treviso
Bologna
La Spezia/Massa
Grosseto/Siena
Pistoia
Macerata
Foligno/Perugia
L’Aquila
Campobasso
Benevento
Matera
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Grosseto/Siena
Matera
Foligno/Perugia
Benevento
Cuneo
Savona/Genova
Como
Brescia
Vicenza
Treviso
Bologna
La Spezia/Massa
Grosseto/Siena
Foligno/Perugia
Campobasso

0.125 = 66
0.333 = 199
0.417 = 263
0.5 = 331
0.333 = 199
0.417 = 263
(47)
0.167 = 91
0.917 = 815
0.875 = 747
0.333 = 199
1.08 = 1054
0.833 = 690
0.542 = 368
0.75 = 584
0.409 = 257
0.25 = 143
0.292 = 170
0.194 = 108
0.2 = 111
0.166 = 91
0.25 = 143
0.472 = 308
0.125 = 66
0.458 = 296
0.583 = 407
0.472 = 308
0.333 = 199
0.583 = 407
0.514 = 344
0.396 = 246
0.389 = 240
0.611 = 435
0.615 = 439
0.416 = 262
0.583 = 407
0.333 = 199
0.583 = 407
0.167 = 91
0.292 = 170
0.333 = 199
0.167 = 91
0.167 = 91
0.167 = 91
0.25 = 143
0.167 = 91
0.208 = 116
0.25 = 143
0.312 = 184

1.6
5.0
6.6
8.3
5.0
6.6
1.2
2.3
20.4
18.7
5.0
26.3
17.2
9.2
14.6
6.4
3.6
4.2
2.7
2.8
2.3
3.6
7.7
1.6
7.4
10.2
7.7
5.0
10.2
8.6
6.1
6.0
10.9
11.0
6.5
10.2
5.0
10.2
2.3
4.2
5.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
3.6
2.3
2.9
3.6
4.6

I1d-L22
I1d1-P109
I2-P215*

I2a-P37.2*
I2a1-M26
I2b1-M223

J1-M267*

J1a2b-P58

J2-M172*
J2a1-M67 –

Campania
Puglia
Calabria
Veneto
Puglia
Toscana
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
Veneto
Umbria
Molise
Molise
Basilicata
Puglia
Lombardia
Toscana
Lombardia
Toscana
Marche
Abruzzo
Molise
Liguria
Veneto
Toscana
Marche
Umbria
Campania
Puglia
Calabria
Piemonte
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Toscana
Umbria
Abruzzo
Puglia
Puglia
Calabria
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
Lombardia
Veneto
Veneto
Toscana
Toscana
Marche
Umbria

Benevento
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Vicenza
Lecce
Grosseto/Siena
Cuneo
Savona/Genova
Como
Treviso
Foligno/Perugia
Campobasso
Campobasso
Matera
Lecce
Como
Grosseto/Siena
Como
Grosseto/Siena
Macerata
L’Aquila
Campobasso
Savona/Genova
Vicenza
Grosseto/Siena
Macerata
Foligno/Perugia
Benevento
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Cuneo
Bologna
Grosseto/Siena
Pistoia
Foligno/Perugia
L’Aquila
Lecce
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Cuneo
Savona/Genova
Como
Brescia
Vicenza
Treviso
Grosseto/Siena
Pistoia
Macerata
Foligno/Perugia

0.083 = 43
0.167 = 91
0.167 = 91
0.167 = 91
0.167 = 91
0.083 = 43
0.55 = 376
0.417 = 263
0.792 = 640
0.417 = 263
0.583 = 407
0.417 = 263
0.333 = 199
0.5 = 331
0.542 = 368
0.1 = 53
0.1 = 53
0.417 = 263
0.5 = 331
0.167 = 91
0.75 = 584
0.417 = 263
0.333 = 199
0.5 = 331
0.625 = 449
0.667 = 492
0.5 = 331
0.583 = 407
0.833 = 690
0.5 = 331
0.5 = 331
0.458 = 296
0.5 = 331
0.5 = 331
0.25 = 143
0.917 = 816
0.5 = 331
0.5 = 331
0.666 = 493
0.417 = 263
0.528 = 356
0.75 = 584
0.583 = 407
0.567 = 392
0.389 = 240
0.444 = 284
0.583 = 407
0.35 = 212
0.483 = 317

1.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.1
9.4
6.6
16.0
6.6
10.2
6.6
5.0
8.3
9.2
1.3
1.3
6.6
8.3
2.3
14.6
6.6
5.0
8.3
11.2
12.3
8.3
10.2
17.2
8.3
8.3
7.4
8.3
8.3
3.6
20.4
8.3
8.3
12.3
6.6
8.9
14.6
10.2
9.8
6.0
7.1
10.2
5.3
7.9

J2a2-M67

J2a2a-M92

J2b-M12*
J2b2-M241

L-M20*

L2a-M349*

R1a1a-M17*

Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria
Liguria
Lombardia
Veneto
Toscana
Marche
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria
Liguria
Veneto
Marche
Umbria
Molise
Basilicata
Puglia
Umbria
Basilicata
Lombardia
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Marche
Umbria
Puglia
Calabria
Veneto
Veneto
Marche
Calabria
Veneto
Toscana
Abruzzo
Puglia
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
Toscana
Toscana
Marche
Abruzzo
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia

L’Aquila
Campobasso
Benevento
Matera
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Savona/Genova
Como
Treviso
Grosseto/Siena
Macerata
Benevento
Matera
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Savona/Genova
Treviso
Macerata
Foligno/Perugia
Campobasso
Matera
Lecce
Foligno/Perugia
Matera
Como
Bologna
Grosseto/Siena
Macerata
Foligno/Perugia
Lecce
Cos/Cat/Cro
Vicenza
Treviso
Macerata
Cos/Cat/Cro
Vicenza
Grosseto/Siena
L’Aquila
Lecce
Cuneo
Savona/Genova
Brescia
La Spezia/Massa
Grosseto/Siena
Macerata
L’Aquila
Benevento
Matera
Lecce

0.75 = 584
0.333 = 199
0.542 = 368
0.666 = 493
0.292 = 170
0.583 = 407
0.583 = 407
0.458 = 296
0.25 = 143
0.6 = 424
0.417 = 263
0.3 = 176
0.583 = 407
0.167 = 91
0.5 = 331
0.333 = 199
0.417 = 263
0.583 = 407
0.5 = 331
0.458 = 296
0.75 = 584
0.528 = 356
0.958 = 864
0.625 = 449
0.417 = 263
0.333 = 199
0.458 = 296
0.167 = 91
0.5 = 331
0.25 = 143
0.25 = 143
0.542 = 368
0.958 = 864
0.167 = 91
0.5 = 331
0.083 = 44
0.417 = 263
0.361 = 219
0.5 = 331
0.333 = 199
0.333 = 199
0.292 = 170
0.208 = 116
0.187 = 103
0.139 = 74
0.417 = 263
0.083 = 44
0.417 = 263
0.222 = 124

14.6
5.0
9.2
12.3
4.2
10.2
10.2
7.4
3.6
10.6
6.6
4.4
10.2
2.3
8.3
5.0
6.6
10.2
8.3
7.4
14.6
8.9
21.6
11.2
6.6
5.0
7.4
2.3
8.3
3.6
3.6
9.2
21.6
2.3
8.3
1.1
6.6
5.5
8.3
5.0
5.0
4.2
2.9
2.6
1.8
6.6
1.1
6.6
3.1

R1b-M343*
T-M70*

T-P77

T1b

Calabria
Veneto
Marche
Lombardia
Veneto
Toscana
Toscana
Abruzzo
Basilicata
Toscana
Abruzzo
Campania
Basilicata
Piemonte

Cos/Cat/Cro
Vicenza
Macerata
Como
Vicenza
La Spezia/Massa
Grosseto/Siena
L’Aquila
Matera
La Spezia/Massa
L’Aquila
Benevento
Matera
Cuneo

0.167 = 91
0.5 = 331
0.5 = 331
0.333 = 199
0.667 = 493
0.917 = 816
0.75 = 584
0.639 = 463
0.75 = 584
0.167 = 91
0.222 = 124
0.5 = 331
0.25 = 143
0.75 = 584

2.3
8.3
8.3
5.0
12.3
20.4
14.6
11.6
14.6
2.3
3.1
8.3
3.6
14.6

TABLE 2: REGIONAL HAPLOGROUPS AND ASSIGNMENT TO DIFFERENT
PREHISTORIC TIME PERIODS
PERIOD
REGION
HAPLOGROUPS
Gravettian (30-20 kya)
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
E-M123*
Veneto
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
F-M89*
Marche
Umbria
J2b-M12*
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria
Early Epigravettian (20-16
Piemonte
F-M89*
kya)
Liguria
F-M89*
Lombardia
E-M78*, I2-P215*
Veneto
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
T-M70*
Marche
Umbria
Abruzzo
J1a2b-P58
Molise
E-M35*
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
J1-M267*
Calabria
Middle Epigravettian (16-14
Piemonte
T1b
kya)

Final Epigravettian (14-8 kya)

Liguria
Lombardia
Veneto
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Marche
Umbria
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria
Piemonte
Liguria
Lombardia
Veneto
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Marche
Umbria
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria

Late Mesolithic
(Sauveterrian** and
Castelnovian*** 8-6 kya) and
Neolithic (Cardium Pottery
culture 8-5 kya****)

Piemonte

Liguria
Lombardia
Veneto

Emilia-Romagna
Toscana

G2a-P15*, L-M20*
I2b1-M223*, J2a1-M67 –
J2a2a-M92, T-M70*
G2a-P15*, I2-P215*
J2a1-M67 –, J2a2-M67
J2a1-M67 –
T-M70*
E-V12, J1-M267*, J2a1-M67 –,
J2a2-M67
J1-M267*, J2a2a-M92
I2-P215*
G2a3b1a-L140, T-M70*
G2a3b1a-L140
G2c-M377, J1-M267*, J2a1M67 –
G1e, J2a1-M67 –, J2a2-M67,
J2b-M12*
G2a1-L293, I2a-P37.2*, J2a2aM92
G2a1-L293, J2-M172*, J2a1M67 –
J1a2b-P58, J2a1-M67 –,
R1a1a-M17*

E-V22, I2-P215*, J1-M267*,
J2a2a-M92, R1a1a-M17*
I2b1-M223*, J2a2-M67, J2b2M241, T-M70*
E-M123*, E-V13, E-V22, FM89*, I2-P215*, J1-M267*,
J2a1-M67 –, J2a2a-M92, R1bM343*
G2a3b1a-L140, J1a2b-P58,
J2b2-M241
E-M123*, E-V22, G1a1-L201,
G2a3b1a-L140, I2b1-M223*,
J1a2b-P58, J2b2-M241, L2a-

Marche
Umbria
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria

M349*
G2a-P15*, G2a3b1a-L140,
J2a1-M67 –, J2a2-M67, R1bM343*
G2a3b1a-L140, G1b-L830, J1M267*, J2a1-M67 –, J2a2aM92, J2b2-M241
L2a-M349*, R1a1a-M17*
E-M84, I2-P215*, I2a-P37.2*,
I2b1-M223*, J2a1-M67 –,
J2a2a-M92
T-P77, E-V22, G2a3b1a-L140
E-V22, E-M84, G2a3b1a-L140,
I2a-P37.2*, R1a1a-M17*
J1a2b-P58, L2a-M349*, J2M172*
E-M183, E-M84, J1-M267*,
J2a2-M67, L-M20*

** North-Eastern Italian peninsula (Trentino-Alto-Adige, Friuli, Veneto)
*** Lazio, Campania, Puglia, Calabria, Basilicata
**** Liguria, Lombardia, Emilia, Puglia

TABLE 3: PERCENTAGE OF GRAVETTIAN AND EPIGRAVETTIAN/EARLY
MESOLITHIC HAPLOGROUPS IN MODERN-DAY REGIONS
REGION
PERCENTAGE
PALEOLITHIC LINEAGES (30Piemonte
0%
20 kya)
Liguria
0%
Lombardia
1.2%
Veneto
0%
Emilia-Romagna
0%
Toscana
1.6%
Marche
0%
Umbria
5.4%
Abruzzo
0%
Molise
0%
Campania
0%
Basilicata
0%
Puglia
0%
Calabria
0%
EPIPALEOLITHIC/MESOLITHI
Piemonte
16.7%
C LINEAGES (20-8 kya)
Liguria
14.0%
Lombardia
5.0%
Veneto
7.1%

Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Marche
Umbria
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Puglia
Calabria

0%
12.2%
5.0%
2.7%
52.2%
24.1%
16.7%
28.0%
23.1%
31.6%

DISCUSSING THE RESULTS
The results obtained in this analysis reveal a greatly heterogeneous genetic landscape throughout
the Italian peninsula, haplogroup R1b being the only haplogroup that links the whole peninsula. The
fact that a notable percentage of haplogroups dating to Paleolithic times has been found is striking.
The “oldest” haplogroup in the Italian peninsula is E-M123*. Its date of arrival in the peninsula is
slightly later than the introduction of the Gravettian culture, therefore E-M123*, at least in Italy,
cannot be considered a “Gravettian marker”. Other notably ancient haplogroups are F-M89* and
J2b-M12*. Both haplogroups arrived several millennia later than E-M123*, and their cultural
affiliation is unknown at the moment, but it can be hypothesised that the two haplogroups found a
refuge in Italy from East of the Alps (it is certain that they came from the Middle East) to avoid the
incoming cold. This is supported by the fact that Italy is considered one of the three main “LGM
refugia” together with the Franco-Cantabrian and Balkan refugia. The time of arrival of both
haplogroups in the peninsula is consistent with the “refuge” scenario.
Italy might have been a refuge also for many other haplogroups that were introduced in Europe
from the East. These include a number of unexpected haplogroups, like E-M35*, E-M78*, J-P58
etc. that were believed to have come to Europe at much later times (they are still nicknamed
“Neolithic haplogroups”). Throughout the Epipaleolithic/Early Mesolithic periods a great number
of haplogroups entered Europe and subsequently Italy. It is striking that some regions in Italy
possess a huge frequency of haplogroups from this period, notable is the case of Abruzzo, whose
frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroups from Epipaleolithic/Early Mesolithic times exceeds 50%.
In general, this period’s male genetic contribution to the Italian gene pool is greater than expected,
and, together with the Iron Age/Bronze age period (haplogroup R1a and R1b among others) it
makes the majority of the male gene pool in Italy.
The Neolithic contribution is lower than usually claimed, but that is consistent with some scholar’s
theories that the Neolithic revolution was a cultural rather than demic phenomenon in Europe.

HAPLOGROUP G

1) CUNEO
G2a-P15*
13
22
13
24

15
15

10
11

14-14
13-14

11
11

13
12

11
12

12
14

11
11

28
31

11

13

11

12

11

27

11
11

12
13

12
11

14
12

11
11

30
29

11
11
11

14
14
13

11
11
11

12
12
12

11
11
11

30
30
29

11
11
11
11
11

13
13
12
13
12

12
11
11
12
13

12
12
12
12
12

11
11
11
11
11

29
29
29
29
28

11

13

11

12

11

28

TMRCA = 13/2/12 = 0.542 = 368 = 9.2 ky
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22

14

10

14-14

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
2) SAVONA/GENOVA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
22

15
15

10
10

13-13
14-14

TMRCA = 7/2/12 = 0.292 = 170 = 4.2 ky
3) COMO
G2a3b1a-L140
13
22
13
22
13
22

15
15
15

10
10
10

14-14
14-14
14-14

TMRCA = 7/3/12 = 0.194 = 108 = 2.7 ky

4) BRESCIA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
22
14
22
13
22
14
23

15
15
15
15
15

10
10
10
10
10

14-15
14-14
12-14
14-14
14-14

TMRCA = 12/5/12 = 0.2 = 111 = 2.8 ky
5) VICENZA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22

15

10

14-14

14

22

15

10

14-15

11

13

12

12

10

29

11

13

12

13

13

29

11
11

13
12

11
11

12
12

11
12

29
29

11
11
11

13
12
12

11
12
12

12
12
12

11
11
11

30
30
30

11
11

13
13

11
10

12
12

11
11

29
29

11
11
11
11

13
13
13
13

11
12
11
12

12
13
12
13

11
11
11
11

30
31
30
31

11

12

11

12

12

28

TMRCA = 4/2/12 = 0.166 = 91 = 2.3 ky
6) TREVISO
G2a-P15*
12
21

14

11

11-14

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
23

15
15

10
10

14-16
14-15

TMRCA = 6/2/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
7) BOLOGNA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
22
15
21

15
15
15

10
10
11

14-18
13-15
13-15

TMRCA = 17/3/12 = 0.472 = 308 = 7.7 ky
8) LA SPEZIA / MASSA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
15
22

15
15

10
10

14-14
13-14

TMRCA = 3/2/12 = 0.125 = 66 = 1.6 ky
9) GROSSETO / SIENA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
22
14
22
14
22

15
16
15
16

11
11
10
11

14-16
13-15
14-14
13-16

TMRCA = 22/4/12 = 0.458 = 296 = 7.4 ky
G1a1-L201
13
24

16

10

14-14

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.416 = 262 = 6.5 ky

10) PISTOIA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22

14

10

13-14

11

12

12

14

11

30

14-14
13-16
13-17

11
11
11

13
12
12

11
12
11

12
12
12

11
11
11

30
29
29

11
11

12
12

13
12

11
11

31
29

11
11
11
11
11
11

13
12
13
13
13
13

11

12
11

12
14
12
12
12
12

11
11
11
11
11
11

28
32
28
29
29
30

11

12

11

12

12

27

11
11
11

12
12
12

12
13
12

13
12
13

11
11
11

29
30
31

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 10.2 ky
11) MACERATA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
21
14
21

15
17
16

10
10
11

TMRCA = 17/3/12 = 0.472 = 308 = 7.7 ky
G2a-P15*
13
24
13
22

15
15

10
10

13-15
12-14

TMRCA = 9/2/11 = 0.409 = 257 = 6.4 ky
12) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
22
14
21
14
22
14
22
14
22

15
15
15
15
15
15

10
10
10
10
10
11

14-15
13-16
13-16
14-14
13-15
14-16

11

TMRCA = 22/6/11 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
G1b-L830
14
24

16

10

14-14

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
13) L’AQUILA
G2a3b1a-L140
14
22
14
22
15
21

15
15
15

10
10
10

11-12
13-14
13-15

14

21

14

10

13-15

11

12

12

12

11

29

11
11
11
11
11
11

12
13
12
12
12
12

13
12
11
11
12
11

12
12
14
12
13
12

11
11
11
12
11
11

28
28
30
29
29
27

11

12

11

12

11

29

11
11
11
11

12
12
12
13

11
11
11
12

12
12
12
12

11
11
11
11

28
30
28
29

11

12

11

14

11

30

11
11
11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12
12
13

11
12
11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12
12
12

11
11
10
11
11
11

28
29
29
28
29
29

TMRCA = 28/4/12 = 0.583 = 10.2 ky
14) CAMPOBASSO
G2a3b1a-L140
13
22
14
22
14
22
14
23
14
21
14
23

15
17
15
15
15
15

10
11
11
10
10
10

12-15
13-14
14-14
13-15
11-13
14-15

TMRCA = 37/6/12 = 0.514 = 344 = 8.6 ky
G2a-P15*
13
23

15

10

15-15

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
15) BENEVENTO
G2a3b1a-L140
14
21
14
21
14
21
14
22

15
16
16
15

10
10
10
10

13-15
13-15
13-15
14-15

TMRCA = 19/4/12 = 0.396 = 246 = 6.1 ky
G2c-M377
13
23

15

10

13-16

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
16) MATERA
G2a3b1a-L140
15
23
13
23
14
22
14
22
14
21
13
23

14
15
15
15
16
15

10
10
10
11
11
10

12-14
14-14
15-15
13-15
13-13
14-14

TMRCA = 28/6/12 = 0.389 = 240 = 6.0 ky

G1e
13

23

14

10

14-14

11

12

12

12

13

28

15-15
12-13
13-15

11
11
10

12
12
12

11
11
13

12
12
12

11
11
11

30
29
28

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

12
11
12
11
11
12
11
12

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

11
11
11
10
11
11
10
11

30
30
29
30
29
27
30
29

11

13

11
11

13
13

11
11

30
30

11

13

12

12

11

28

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 10.2 ky
17) LECCE
G2a1-L293
15
22
14
21
14
21

15
15
15

10
10
10

TMRCA = 22/3/12 = 0.611 = 435 = 10.9 ky
18) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
G2a1-L293
14
23
14
23
14
23
14
22
13
22
14
23
14
22
14
21

15
15
15
15
15
14
16
14

9
10
11
10
10
10
10
10

12-14
12-14
12-14
15-15
12-14
14-14
15-15
13-15

11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11

TMRCA = 59/8/12 = 0.615 = 11.0 ky
HAPLOGROUP I2/I2a
1) CUNEO
I2-P215*
13
25
14
24

17
15

10
10

13-17
12-13

TMRCA = 11/2/10 = 0.55 = 376 = 9.4 ky
2) SAVONA / GENOVA
I2-P215*
13
23

15

10

12-14

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
3) COMO

I2a1-M26
13
23

16

10

12-12

13

13

11

28

TMRCA = 1/1/10 = 0.1 = 53 = 1.3 ky
I2-P215*
14
25
14
25

15
15

11
11

13-18
13-17

11
11

13
13

11
11

12
12

11
11

29
29

11

13

12

12

11

31

11

13

12

13

11

28

11

13

11

12

11

29

11

13

11

13

11

29

11

13

12

13

11

30

TMRCA = 19/2/12 = 0.792 = 640 = 16.0 ky
4) TREVISO
I2-P215*
13
23

16

10

12-14

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
5) GROSSETO / SIENA
I2a1-M26
13
23

17

10

12-12

TMRCA = 1/1/10 = 0.1 = 53 = 1.3 ky
6) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
I2-P215*
12
22

15

10

12-14

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
7) CAMPOBASSO
I2-P215*
11
24

15

10

12-14

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
I2a-P37.2*
13
24

14

11

14-15

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
8) MATERA

I2a-P37.2*
13
24

16

11

14-15

11

13

12

13

11

32

11
11

13
13

11
12

13
11

11
11

31
29

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
9) LECCE
I2a-P37.2*
13
13

24
24

16
16

11
11

14-15
14-15

TMRCA = 13/2/12 = 0.542 = 368 = 9.2 ky
HAPLOGROUP E
1) CUNEO
E-V65
13
24

13

10

17-18

11

12

10

12

11

29

10

16-18

11

12

12

13

11

30

11
11
11
10
11
11
11

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

11
12
11
12
12
13
13

13
13
13
14
13
13
13

11
11
11
11
11
11
11

30
30
31
31
30
30
30

11

12

12

13

11

30

TMRCA = 47 = 1.2 ky
E-V13
13
23

13

TMRCA = 1/1/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
2) SAVONA / GENOVA
E-V13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

25
24
24
24
25
25
25

13
13
13
13
13
13
13

10
10
10
10
10
10
10

17-17
16-18
16-19
16-18
16-18
17-19
16-19

TMRCA = 18/7/12 = 0.214 = 120 = 3.0 ky
E-V22
13
23

13

10

16-19

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky

3) COMO
E-V13
13
13
13
13

24
23
24
24

13
13
13
13

10
10
10
10

16-16
16-19
17-19
16-18

11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12

13
12
12
12

14
13
14
13

10
11
11
11

31
30
31
31

11

12

11

13

11

30

11

14

11

13

11

31

11
11
11

12
12
12

13
12
12

12
13
13

11
11
11

29
30
30

11
11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12
12

12
13
11
12
12

13
12
13
13
13

11
11
11
11
11

30
29
30
31
30

11

12

13

13

11

30

TMRCA = 13/4/12 = 0.271 = 157 = 3.9 ky
E-M78*
13
24

13

10

18-19

TMRCA = 11/1/12 = 0.917 = 817 = 20.4 ky

4) BRESCIA
E-M123*
13
24

12

10

17-17

TMRCA = 13/1/12 = 1.08 = 1054 = 26.3 ky
E-V13
13
24
14
23
13
24

13
15
13

10
10
10

16-17
16-17
17-18

TMRCA = 11/3/12 = 0.306 = 180 = 4.5 ky
5) VICENZA
E-V13
13
13
13
13
13

24
24
24
24
24

13
13
13
13
13

10
10
10
11
10

16-16
15-18
16-19
16-18
16-19

TMRCA = 11/5/12 = 0.183 = 101 = 2.5 ky
E-M123*
13
24

13

10

15-17

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
E-V22

13

24

14

9

17-18

11

12

12

12

11

29

11
11
11

12
12
12

12
12
12

13
13
13

11
11
13

30
30
29

11

12

12

13

11

30

11
11

12
12

12
12

13
13

11
11

30
30

11

12

10

14

11

30

11
11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12
12

11
12
12
11
12

13
13
13
13
13

11
11
11
11
11

30
30
30
30
30

11
11

12
12

12
12

13
12

11
11

29
30

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
6) TREVISO
E-V13
13
24
13
25
13
23

13
13
14

10
10
11

16-18
16-19
10-14

TMRCA = 18/3/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
E-M123*
13
24

13

11

15-17

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
7) BOLOGNA
E-V13
13
24
14
24

13
13

10
10

17-18
15-20

TMRCA = 5/2/12 = 0.208 = 116 = 2.9 ky
E-M183
13
24

13

9

13-13

TMRCA = 1/1/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
8) GROSSETO / SIENA
E-V13
13
13
13
13
13

24
25
24
24
24

13
13
13
13
13

10
10
10
10
10

16-17
16-18
16-18
12-14
16-18

TMRCA = 12/5/12 = 0.2 = 111 = 2.8 ky
E-M84
13
24
13
23

13
13

10
10

16-18
17-17

TMRCA = 7/2/12 = 0.292 = 170 = 4.2 ky
E-V12

13
8
13

23
25
24

14
13
13

10
7
10

16-16
16-18
17-18

11
11
11

12
12
12

12
13
13

13
9
13

11
11
11

31
30
30

11

12

12

13

11

28

11

12

10

13

11

29

11

12

13

13

11

30

11

12

11

13

11

30

11
11
11

12
12
12

12
12

13
13
13

11
11
11

30
30
30

11
11

12
12

13
12

13
12

11
11

31
30

11
11

12
12

12
13

12
13

11
11

30
30

TMRCA = 24/3/12 = 0.667 = 12.3 ky
E-V22
13
24

15

11

17-18

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
E-M183
12
24

14

9

13-14

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
E-M123*
14
25
15
11
17-18
TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
9) PISTOIA
E-V13
13
24

13

10

16-19

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
10) MACERATA
E-V13
13
24
13
24
13
23

13
13
13

10
10
10

16-17
16-19
17-18

TMRCA = 4/3/12 = 0.111 = 58 = 1.4 ky
E-M84
13
24
13
23

13
13

10
10

17-17
16-18

TMRCA = 6/2/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
11) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
E-V13
13
24
13
24

13
13

10
10

15-18
17-18

TMRCA = 4/2/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
E-V65
13
24

13

10

16-18

11

12

11

12

11

29

11
11
11

12
12
12

13
11
11

14
14
13

11
11
11

31
31
30

11
11
11

12
12
12

11
13
12

13
13
13

11
11
11

30
30
30

11

13

11

13

11

31

11

12

13

11

30

11
11
11

12
12
12

13
14
13

11
11
11

32
34
30

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
12) L’AQUILA
E-V13
13
24
13
24
13
24

13
13
13

10
10
10

15-17
16-18
15-17

TMRCA = 11/3/12 = 0.306 = 180 = 4.5 ky
13) CAMPOBASSO
E-V13
13
24
13
24
13
24

13
13
13

10
10
10

16-18
16-18
15-18

TMRCA = 3/3/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
E-M84
13
23

14

10

16-17

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
E-M35*
13
23

13

9

12-15

TMRCA = 11/1/12 = 0.917 = 816 = 20.4 ky
14) BENEVENTO
E-M84
13
23
13
24
13
25

13
13
14

10
10
10

16-17
16-17
16-16

TMRCA = 10/3/12 = 0.278 = 162 = 4.0 ky

13
12
12

E-V13
13
24
13
23
13
24

13
13
14

11
10
10

17-18
16-17
16-18

10
11
11

12
12
12

12
13
12

13
13
13

11
11
11

30
30
28

11

12

12

14

11

31

11
11

12
13

12
12

13
12

11
11

30
29

11

12

14

13

11

30

11
11

12
12

12
12

13
13

11
11

30
30

11

12

11

14

11

32

11
11
11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12
12
12

12
12
12
11
13
12

13
13
13
13
13
14

11
11
11

30
30
30
30
30
31

TMRCA = 9/3/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
E-V22
13
24

14

10

16-19

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
15) MATERA
E-V22
13
23
13
24

14
14

10
10

17-19
16-16

TMRCA = 10/2/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
E-V12
13
24

13

10

16-16

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
E-V13
13
24
13
24

13
13

10
11

15-18
16-18

TMRCA = 2/2/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
E-M84
14
24

13

9

16-16

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
16) LECCE
E-V13
13
13
13
13
13
13

24
25
24
24
24
24

12
13
13
13
13
13

10
10
10
10
10
10

16-18
18-18
16-19
15-19
15-17
16-17

11
11

TMRCA = 14/6/12 = 0.194 = 108 = 2.7 ky
E-M84
13
24

13

10

16-17

11

12

12

12

10

30

11

12

12

13

11

30

11

14

11

14

11

30

11
11
11
11

12
12
12
12

12
12
12
12

13
13
13
13

11
11
11
11

30
30
30
29

11

12

12

12

11

30

11
11

15
15

11
11

14
13

11
11

31
29

11
11

14
14

12
12

13
13

12
12

29
29

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
17) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
E-V12
13
23

13

10

15-16

TMRCA = 1/1/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
E-M183
13
24

13

9

15-15

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
E-V13
13
13
13
13

24
24
24
24

14
13
13

10
10
10
10

16-18
16-17
18-18
17-18

TMRCA = 6/4/12 = 0.125 = 66 = 1.6 ky
E-M84
13
23

13

11

17-18

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
HAPLOGROUP J2a
1) CUNEO
J2a1-M67 13
24
12
23

14
15

9
10

13-15
13-16

TMRCA = 10/2/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
2) SAVONA / GENOVA
J2a2-M67
12
23
12
23

15
15

10
10

14-16
14-16

TMRCA = 14/2/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
J2a1-M67 12
23
12
23
12
24

14
15
14

10
9
10

12-19
13-17
14-16

11
11
11

15
15
14

11
12
12

14
13
14

11
11
11

33
29
31

11
11

15
15

12
12

14
13

11
11

31
30

11
11

16
16

10
11

13
13

11
11

30
30

11

16

13

13

11

29

11

17

12

13

11

29

11
11
11
11
10

17
15
15
15
15

12

13
13
13
14
12

11

29
31
30
31
29

TMRCA = 19/3/12 = 0.528 = 356 = 8.9 ky
J2a2a-M92
13
21
12
22

15
14

10
10

14-14
13-16

TMRCA = 8/2/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
3) COMO
J2a2-M67
14
24
12
24

14
14

10
10

13-16
13-18

TMRCA = 11/2/12 = 0.458 = 296 = 7.4 ky
J2a1-M67 12

24

15

9

12-19

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
4) BRESCIA
J2a1-M67 –
12
23

15

9

14-16

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
5) VICENZA
J2a1-M67 12
23
12
24
12
23
12
24
13
23

14
16
15
16
15

12
10
10
10
10

13-18
12-16
12-16
12-16
13-15

TMRCA = 34/5/12 = 0.567 = 392 = 9.8 ky

12
13

11
11
11

6) TREVISO
J2a2-M67
12
24

14

10

13-16

11

15

10

13

11

30

11
11
11

15
16
15

11
11

13
13
14

11
11
11

29
29
30

11

15

12

13

11

30

11
11
11
11
11
11

16
15
14
15
16
16

13
13
11
11
10
12

13
13
13
13
13
13

11
12
11
11
11
11

29
29
29
31
31
30

11

12

11

28

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
J2a1-M67 –
12
23
12
23
12
25

14
16
14

9
9
11

13-17
14-16
12-18

TMRCA = 14/3/12 = 0.389 = 240 = 6.0 ky
J2a2a-M92
13
22

14

10

12-15

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
7) GROSSETO / SIENA
J2a1-M67 –
12
23
12
23
12
23
12
23
12
23
12
23

15
14
15
15
13
15

9
10
10
10
10
9

14-16
13-16
13-16
12-16
13-16
12-16

TMRCA = 32/6/12 = 0.444 = 284 = 7.1 ky
J2a2-M67
13
23

14

10

13-17

TMRCA = 6/1/10 = 0.6 = 424 = 10.6 ky
8) PISTOIA
J2a1-M67 –
12
23

14

10

16-17

11

14

13

12

11

29

11

14

11

13

10

30

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
9) MACERATA
J2a2-M67
13
25

15

10

14-15

12

23

14

9

13-16

11

16

11

13

11

29

11
11
11
11
11

15
15
15
15
15

11

11
11
11
11
11

30
30

10
12
13

13
13
14
13
13

11

15

11

12

11

29

11
11
11
11
11

15
14
15
18
15

11

14
13
13
12
14

11
12
11
11
11

30
30
29
28
30

11

15

11
11
11

15
16
15

TMRCA = 10/2/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
J2a1-M67 –
12
24
12
23
12
22
12
23
13
24

14
15
14
15
14

10
10
11
10
10

13-17
12-17
13-14
13-16
14-17

29
29

TMRCA 21/5/12 = 0.35 = 212 = 5.3 ky
J2a2a-M92
12
22

14

10

13-16

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
10) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
J2a1-M67 –
12
23
11
24
12
23
12
23
13
22

14
15
14
13
14

10
10
10
10
11

13-16
13-20
13-19
13-17
13-15

12
11
10

TMRCA = 29/5/12 = 0.483 = 317 = 7.9 ky
J2a2a-M92
12
22

14

10

13-16

13

29

TMRCA = 5/1/10 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
11) L’AQUILA
J2a1-M67 –
14
23
12
23
12
23

15
15
15

10
9
10

14-17
9-13
12-16

TMRCA = 27/3/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky

12) CAMPOBASSO

13
10
11

12
14
13

11
11
11

28
31
30

J2a2a-M92
12
22
12
22

14
14

10
10

12-15
12-15

11
11

15
15

12
13

12
12

11
11

30
30

11

15

12

13

11

30

11

15

11
10

13
13

11
11

30
29

11
11

16
15

12
13

13
14

11
11

29
30

11

16

12

13

11

29

11

15

11

12

11

29

11

14

10

14

11

29

11
11

16
15

12
10

13
13

11
11

29
29

TMRCA = 11/2/12 = 0.458 = 296 = 7.4 ky
J2a1-M67 –
12
23

14

10

14-16

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
13) BENEVENTO
J2a2-M67
12
23
12
23

14
14

10
10

13-18
13-16

TMRCA = 6/2/10 = 0.3 = 176 = 4.4 ky
J2a1-M67 –
12
23
14
23

15
14

9
10

13-16
15-17

TMRCA = 13/2/12 = 0.542 = 368 = 9.2 ky
14) MATERA
J2a1-M67 –
12
23

15

9

10-16

TMRCA = 8/1/12 = 0.666 = 493 = 12.3 ky
J2a2a-M92
12
22

14

8

12-15

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
J2a2-M67
12
23

14

9

14-16

TMRCA = 7/1/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
15) LECCE
J2a1-M67 –
12
23
12
23

15
15

9
10

13-16
13-17

TMRCA = 7/2/12 = 0.292 = 170 = 4.2 ky
J2-M172*
12
23

15

9

13-15

11

16

11

13

11

29

11
11
11

16
15
15

11
11
11

13
13
12

11
11
11

30
30
29

11

15

11

14

11

30

11
11
11

15
16
15

11
12
12

12
13
13

11
11
11

29
29
29

11

15

12

12

11

28

11
11
11

15
17
16

10
11
10

14
12
13

11
11
11

30
28
29

12

12

11

13

11

30

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
J2a2a-M92
12
22
12
22
12
22

14
15
14

10
11
10

12-15
12-15
14-16

TMRCA = 19/3/12 = 0.528 = 356 = 8.9 ky
J2a2-M67
12
23

14

10

14-15

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
16) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
J2a1-M67 –
12
24
12
23
12
24

14
15
14

10
9
11

14-14
10-16
13-13

TMRCA = 21/3/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
J2-M172*
12
23

15

11

16-18

TMRCA = 8/1/12 = 0.666 = 493 = 12.3 ky
J2a2-M67
12
23
12
23
12
23

15
14
15

10
10
9

13-16
13-17
13-17

TMRCA = 18/3/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
HAPLOGROUP R1a
1) CUNEO
R1a1a-M17*
13
25

17

11

11-13

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky

2) SAVONA / GENOVA
R1a1a-M17*
13
25

15

11

11-14

12

12

11

13

11

31

12

12

11

13

12

29

12
12

12
12

10

13
13

11
11

31
30

12
12

12
12

11
10

13
13

11
11

31
29

12
13
12
12

12
12
12
12

10
10
10
10

13
12
13
13

11
11
11
11

31
29
30
31

12

12

10

13

11

30

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
3) COMO
R1a1a7-M458
13
25

16

10

11-14

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
4) BRESCIA
R1a1a-M17*
14
26
13
25

15
17

11
11

12-15
11-14

TMRCA = 7/2/12 = 0.292 = 170 = 4.2 ky
5) LA SPEZIA / MASSA
R1a1a-M17*
14
25
13
24

16
16

11
11

11-14
11-14

TMRCA = 5/2/12 = 0.208 = 116 = 2.9 ky
6) GROSSETO / SIENA
R1a1a-M17*
13
25
13
24
13
25
13
25

16
16
17
17

11
11
11
10

11-14
11-14
11-14
11-14

TMRCA = 9/4/12 = 0.187 = 103 = 2.6 ky
7) MACERATA
R1a1a-M17*
13
25

16

11

11-14

13
13

25
25

16
16

11
10

11-14
11-14

12
12

12
13

11
10

13
13

11
11

31
31

12

12

10

14

11

32

12
12

12
12

10
10

13
13

11
11

31
30

12

12

10

13

11

30

12
12
12

12
12
12

10
10
10

13
13
13

11
11
11

30
29
30

12

10

12

11

30

TMRCA = 5/3/12 = 0.139 = 74 = 1.8 ky
8) L’AQUILA
R1a1a-M17*
13
26

16

10

11-15

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
9) BENEVENTO
R1a1a-M17*
13
25
13
25

16
16

11
12

11-14
11-14

TMRCA = 2/2/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
10) MATERA
R1a1a-M17*
12
22

15

11

11-14

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
11) LECCE
R1a1a-M17*
13
24
13
25
13
25

17
14
16

11
10
10

11-15
11-14
11-14

TMRCA = 8/3/12 = 0.222 = 124 = 3.1 ky
12) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
R1a1a-M17*
13
25

16

11

11-15

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
HAPLOGROUP I1

12

1) CUNEO
I1-M253*
13
22

15

10

13-14

11

14

12

12

11

28

11
11

14
14

11
12

13
12

11
11

29
28

11

14

12

12

11

29

11

14

12

12

11

28

11
11
10
11
11
11

14
16
14
14
14
14

12
11
11
11
12

12
12
12
12
12
12

11
11
11
11
11
11

28
28
29
28
28
28

11

14

11

12

11

28

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
2) SAVONA / GENOVA
I1-M253*
12
22
13
10
13-16
13
22
14
10
13-14
TMRCA = 7/2/12 = 0.292 = 170 = 4.2 ky
3) COMO
I1-M253*
14
22

14

10

13-15

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
4) BRESCIA
I1-M253*
13
22

15

10

13-14

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
5) VICENZA
I1-M253*
13
22
14
22
13
22
13
22
13
22
13
22

15
14
15
14
14
14

10
10
10
10
10
10

13-14
13-13
13-14
14-14
13-15
13-14

TMRCA = 12/6/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
I1d-L22*
15
23

14

10

14-14

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
6) TREVISO

I1-M253*
13
22

14

11

13-15

11

14

12

11

28

11
11
11

14
14
14

11
11
11

13
12
13

11
11
11

28
28
29

11

14

11

12

11

29

11
11

14
14

12
11

12
12

11
11

28
28

11

14

11

12

11

28

11

14

11

12

11

29

10
10

14
14

12
11

12
12

11
11

29
29

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
7) BOLOGNA
I1-M253*
14
22
14
10
12-14
13
22
14
10
12-14
13
22
13
10
13-16
TMRCA = 9/3/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
8) LA SPEZIA / MASSA
I1-M253*
13
23

14

10

13-14

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
9) GROSSETO / SIENA
I1-M253*
13
22
13
24

14
14

9
10

13-14
14-14

TMRCA = 5/2/12 = 0.208 = 116 = 2.9 ky
I1d1-P109
13
23

14

10

15-15

TMRCA = 1/1/12 = 0.083 = 43 = 1.1 ky
10) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
I1-M253*
13
22

14

11

14-14

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
11) CAMPOBASSO
I1-M253*
12
23
13
22

15
15

10
10

13-13
13-13

13
13

22
22

15
14

10
10

13-13
13-14

11
11

14
14

12
11

12
12

11
11

29
28

11

14

11

12

11

28

11

14

11

12

11

28

11

14

11

12

11

28

11

13

11

13

12

32

11

13

11

13

13

29

11

13

11

13

12

29

TMRCA = 15/4/12 = 0.312 = 184 = 4.6 ky
12) BENEVENTO
I1-M253*
13
23

14

10

13-14

TMRCA = 1/1/12 = 0.083 = 43 = 1.1 ky
13) LECCE
I1d-L22*
13
23

15

10

14-14

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
14) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
I1-M253*
13
23

14

10

12-14

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
HAPLOGROUP I2b
1) COMO
I2b1-M223*
14
23

15

10

14-15

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
2) GROSSETO / SIENA
I2b1-M223*
13
22

15

10

16-16

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
3) MACERATA
I2b1-M223*
14
23

15

10

15-16

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
4) L’AQUILA
I2b1-M223*
14

23

15

10

15-16

11

12

12

14

11

32

11

13

11

13

12

29

10

12

12

14

13

30

11
11

12
12

13
11

13
14

16
14

29
30

11

12

12

13

11

30

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
5) CAMPOBASSO
I2b1-M223*
13
23

15

10

16-17

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
HAPLOGROUP F
1) CUNEO
F-M89*
13
22

13

10

13-15

TMRCA = 11/1/12 = 0.917 = 815 = 20.4 ky
2) SAVONA / GENOVA
F-M89*
11
22
14
23

13
14

10
10

12-16
12-13

TMRCA = 21/2/12 = 0.875 = 747 = 18.7 ky

3) TREVISO
F-M89*
15
22

15

10

12-13

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
4) GROSSETO / SIENA

F-M89*
13

23

14

9

14-17

11

12

12

13

11

28

12

13

13

13

13

29

11
11

12
12

12

12
13

14

27
29

11
11

12
12

11
11

14
14

13
13

30
30

11
11

12
12

11
11

13
13

14
14

32
33

11

12

12

15

15

31

TMRCA = 13/1/12 = 1.083 = 1057 = 26.3 ky
5) PISTOIA
F-M89*
13

24

15

11

11-13

TMRCA = 10/1/12 = 0.833 = 690 = 17.2 ky
APLOGRUPPO L
1) VICENZA
L-M20*
11
22
11
23

14
15

10
10

13-17
12-18

TMRCA = 13/2/12 = 0.542 = 368 = 9.2 ky
L2a-M349
12
23
12
23

14
14

10
10

16-19
16-19

TMRCA = 2/2/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
2) TREVISO
L-M20*
11
24
11
24

15
15

10
10

12-16
12-16

TMRCA = 23/2/12 = 0.958 = 864 = 21.6 ky
3) GROSSETO / SIENA
L2a-M349
12
23

14

10

16-18

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
4) MACERATA

L-M20*
11
22

13

11

12-16

11

12

12

12

16

28

11
11
11

12
13
12

11
12
12

14
13
13

14
15
15

30
29
29

11

12

11

13

14

29

11

13

13

12

15

27

11

12

13

13

16

29

11

12

11

14

13

30

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
5) L’AQUILA
L2a-M349
12
23
12
23
12
23

14
14
14

10
10
10

16-18
16-19

TMRCA = 13/3/12 = 0.361 = 219 = 5.5 ky
6) LECCE
L2a-M349
12
23

14

10

15-16

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
7) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
L-M20*
11
22

13

10

12-17

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
HAPLOGROUP T
1) CUNEO
T1b
14

23

14

10

11-18

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
2) COMO
T-M70*
14
23

13

10

16-18

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
3) VICENZA

T-M70*
13
22
13
23

13
13

10
10

13-15
13-16

11
11

12
12

11
12

14
14

13
13

30
29

11

12

12

13

13

29

11

12

11

13

13

29

11

12

11

14

13

31

11

12

11

14

15

31

11
11
11

12
12
12

11
12
12

13
14
13

13
13
13

29
29
31

11
11
11

12
12
12

11
11
11

14
14
14

13
13
13

30
31
30

TMRCA = 16/2/12 = 0.667 = 493 = 12.3 ky
4) LA SPEZIA / MASSA
T-M70*
13
24

15

10

13-15

TMRCA = 11/1/12 = 0.917 = 816 = 20.4
T2-P77
14

24

14

10

14-16

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
5) GROSSETO / SIENA
T-M70*
13
22

13

10

13-15

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
T1b
14

23

14

10

15-18

TMRCA = 1/1/12 = 0.083 = 44 = 1.1 ky
6) L’AQUILA
T-M70*
13
22
13
22
13
23

13
13
15

10
10
10

13-15
15-17
13-16

TMRCA = 23/3/12 = 0.639 = 463 = 11.6 ky
T2-P77
13
23
13
23
14
23

14
14
14

10
10
10

14-16
14-16
14-16

TMRCA = 8/3/12 = 0.222 = 124 = 3.1 ky

7) BENEVENTO
T2-P77
15
23

14

10

14-16

11

13

11

14

13

31

11

12

11

13

13

30

11

12

12

14

13

30

11

15

12

12

11

30

11

15

12

12

11

29

11
11

13
15

12
12

12
12

11
11

28
27

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
8) MATERA
T2-P77
13
23

14

10

14-14

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
T-M70*
13

22

13

10

13-15

TMRCA = 9/1/12 = 0.75 = 584 = 14.6 ky
HAPLOGROUP J2b
1) COMO
J2b2-M241
12
24

15

10

14-19

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
2) BOLOGNA
J2b2-M241
12
25

15

10

13-17

TMRCA = 4/1/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
3) GROSSETO / SIENA
J2b2-M241
12
24
12
25

15
15

10
10

11-18
14-16

TMRCA = 11/2/12 = 0.458 = 296 = 7.4 ky

4) MACERATA
J2b2-M241
12
24

15

10

14-17

11

15

11

12

11

28

11
11

15
15

8

12
13

11
11

28
31

11

16

13

12

11

28

11
11

14
15

11

13
12

11
11

29
28

11
11
11

15
15
15

12
12

12
12
12

11
11
11

28
27
27

15

12

12

11

28

TMRCA = 2/1/12 = 0.167 = 91 = 2.3 ky
5) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
J2b-M12*
12
25
12
23

15
15

11
10

18-20
15-16

TMRCA = 23/2/12 = 0.958 = 864 = 21.6 ky
J2b2-M241
12
23

15

10

15-18

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
6) MATERA
J2b-M12*
12
24
12
24

14
15

10
10

14-15
16-18

TMRCA = 15/2/12 = 0.625 = 449 = 11.2 ky
7) LECCE
J2b2-M241
12
24
12
24
12
24

14
15
15

10
10
10

14-17
14-16
14-15

TMRCA = 9/3/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
8) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
J2b2-M241
12
23

15

10

14-18

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
HAPLOGROUP J1

11

1) CUNEO
J1a2b-P58
12
23

14

10

14-20

11

15

12

13

11

31

11
11

13
13

11
11

13
13

11
11

29
29

11

16

12

14

11

30

11
11

16
15

12
11

13
13

11
11

30
29

11
11

13
15

11
12

14
13

11
11

30
32

11

17

12

13

11

30

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
2) SAVONA / GENOVA
J1-M267*
12
24
12
24

14
14

10
10

12-18
12-18

TMRCA = 8/2/12 = 0.333 = 199 = 5.0 ky
3) VICENZA
J1-M267*
12
23

14

10

10-19

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
4) BOLOGNA
J1a2b-P58
12
23
12
23

14
14

10
11

13-15
13-18

TMRCA = 11/2/12 = 0.458 = 296 = 7.4 ky
5) GROSSETO / SIENA
J1-M267*
12
23
12
23

15
14

10
9

12-17
14-16

TMRCA = 15/2/12 = 0.625 = 449 = 11.2 ky
J1a2b-P58
12
23

14

10

13-18

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
6) PISTOIA
J1a2b-P58

12

23

14

10

13-17

11

16

11

12

11

28

11

14

12

12

11

28

10

16

11

13

11

30

11

16

11

13

11

29

11

16

12

14

11

32

11

16

11

14

11

31

11
11
11

16
13
15

11
13
12

13
13
13

11
11
11

29
29

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
7) MACERATA
J1-M267*
12
23

14

11

12-18

TMRCA = 8/1/12 = 0.667 = 492 = 12.3 ky
8) FOLIGNO / PERUGIA
J1-M267*
13
23

14

10

16-17

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
J1a2b-P58
12
23

14

10

13-18

TMRCA = 3/1/12 = 0.25 = 143 = 3.6 ky
9) L’AQUILA
J1a2b-P58
10
23

14

10

13-17

TMRCA = 11/1/12 = 0.917 = 816 = 20.4 ky

10) CAMPOBASSO
J1a2b-P58
12
23

14

10

13-19

TMRCA = 5/1/12 = 0.417 = 263 = 6.6 ky
11) BENEVENTO
J1-M267*
12
23
13
22
12
23

14
14
15

12
10
10

10-19
13-19
12-17

TMRCA = 21/3/12 = 0.583 = 407 = 10.2 ky
12) LECCE
J1a2b-P58
12
22

14

10

13-18

9

16

11

13

11

31

11

13

13

13

11

29

11

13

12

13

11

29

12

12

13

13

30

12

13

14

12

31

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
J1-M267*
13
22

15

10

13-19

TMRCA = 10/1/12 = 0.833 = 690 = 17.2 ky
13) COSENZA / CATANZARO / CROTONE
J1-M267*
12
23

14

10

13-19

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
HAPLOGROUP R1b-M343*
1) VICENZA
R1b-M343*
13
25

14

11

12-14

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky
2) MACERATA
R1b-M343*
13

24

16

10

12-14

TMRCA = 6/1/12 = 0.5 = 331 = 8.3 ky

12

GRAVETTIAN CULTURAL EXTENT

12.5.2013, Rimini, Italy


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