Yilmaz Gulgun .pdf
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Assoc. Prof. Gülgün YILMAZ, Ph. D.
Assist. Prof. Fuat YILMAZ, Ph. D.
FROM THE WEST TO THE EAST OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA:
SPANISH LUSTER-WARES FROM AYASULUK HILL (IZMIR/TURKEY)
The ceramics produced in Italy and Spain,
which were found in excavations between
the years 1974-2014 in Ayasuluk Castle and
St. Jean Church (Izmir / Turkey), give
important informations about activities of
the Harbor of Ephesus in the 15th Century.
Totally 91 fragments from various types of Valencian potteries are saved in the warehouse of the excavation
Tin-glazed pink body, in-glaze cobalt blue and copper luster geometric, floral patterns and monograms are
characteristic for these types of ceramics. These potteries have marks of Moorish art and belong to “HispanoMoresque ware” group. They are dating to mid 15th Century and produced either in Manises or in Paterna of
Valencia province of Spain. Hispano-Moresque plates, bowls, jugs and other shapes such as albarellos were
important for the marine trade between Spain and Italy during that period and Italian merchants had
signed trade agreements with the Ottoman Empire.
SHAPES OF VALENCIAN VESSELS FROM AYASULUK:
1- Bowl (Escudilla)
2- Bowl with base (Escudilla de base)
3- Bowl with ear handle (Escudilla de orejas)
4- Plate (Plato)
5- Pitcher (Jarra)
6- Candle (Candela)
PATTERNS OF VALENCIAN VESSELS FROM AYASULUK:
Geometrical Designs (Consentric circles, dots, stars, radial lines, chevrons, meanders etc.)
Floral Designs (The pattern of some plates, which can be best described as acacia flowers and bryony leaves,
became one of the most popular and widely disseminated decorative motifs of Valencian luster-ware from 1430
well into the second half of the 15th century. The small six-petaled flowers and bryony leaves of cobalt blue
glaze are arranged across a background of pliant stalks, dots, and leaf like designs in copper luster.)
Monograms and Figures (Charged in the center of some examples in copper luster is the monogram IHS (Iesus
Hominum Salvatore), a Christian motif that occurs not infrequently on plates and bowls decorated with this
bryony and acacia pattern. Some animal figures, such as fish or deer and Kufic script can be also seen.)
Photographs: Mehmet Uğur Özer - Drawings: Deniz Demir, Özhan Kakış)