File PDF .it

Condividi facilmente i tuoi documenti PDF con i tuoi contatti, il Web e i Social network.

Inviare un file File manager Cassetta degli attrezzi Ricerca PDF Assistenza Contattaci



Application Francesco Valerio .pdf



Nome del file originale: Application Francesco Valerio.pdf
Autore: frank___v@hotmail.com

Questo documento in formato PDF 1.7 è stato generato da PDF Architect 3 / iText® 5.5.2 ©2000-2014 iText Group NV (ONLINE PDF SERVICES; licensed version), ed è stato inviato su file-pdf.it il 03/09/2015 alle 17:29, dall'indirizzo IP 87.17.x.x. La pagina di download del file è stata vista 1504 volte.
Dimensione del file: 4.4 MB (48 pagine).
Privacy: file pubblico




Scarica il file PDF









Anteprima del documento


FRANCESCO
VALERIO

Via Villa Bisignano, 70
80147 Napoli, Italy
☎ +39 081484669

Curriculum Vitae

Cell ☎ +39 3392151765
Birth Date 04/04/1985

Education and training
•Dates

March 2013
Dottore Magistrale in Scienze e Tecnologie per la Natura e per l'Ambiente (Master of Science in
Biology) with 110/110 score cum Laude
Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Faculty of Science (Scienze MM. FF. NN.) (2013)

•Dates

November 2011
Dottore in Scienze Naturali (Bachelor of Science in Biology) with 97/110 score
Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Faculty of Science. (Scienze MM. FF. NN.)

Work experience

•Dates

•Activity

March 2014 – July 2015
Work as a part of a Cnr (http://www.cnr.it/sitocnr/home.html) project, with the aim
to determine the environmental suitability regarded two bird species in Habitats
Directive: Collared Flycatcher and Red-backed Shrike.
Specifically, the work has focused on the suitability of species within the Sic
areas of Chiarano and Feudozzo, providing specific information for monitoring
areas or conservation plans. Landscape metrics have also been derived, in order
to identify the most aggregate suitable areas out of boundaries of Sic.

•Customer

Rosario Balestrieri (Cnr)

•Subject(s)

Landscape ecology, Species Distribution Models, Habitat suitability, Landscape
metrics.

•Dates

January 2014 - Today

•Activity

A risk assessment analysis (Road ecology).
I'm developing a risk assessment map of the major roads impact on wildlife in
Campania, as coordinator of the project.
The map is divided into critical areas and priority areas of intervention. The first
concerns the intersections of major roads with potential corridors of each species,
the second is derived from the kernel density analysis of all road impact points

•Tutor

Board of directors (a group of professionals) in Ardea Onlus association, with the
sponsorship of the department of Zoology of Naples (Università degli Studi di
Napoli “Federico II”)

•Subject(s)

•Dates
•Activity
•Tutor
Page 1 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

Road ecology, Landscape ecology, Habitat suitability, Cost raster, Stepping
stones, Corridors, Wildlife crossing, Kernel density, Mitigation design, Citizen
Science

January 2010 - 2014
I took part to the IWC (International Waterbird Census) project, collaborating for
the annual census of wintering birds in Ramsar Campania areas
Dr. V. Cavaliere (Regional Coordinator IWC)

•Dates
•Activity

From September 2012 to October 2013
Master of Science in Biology’s’ Thesis: “Evolution scenarios of wooded formation
in the wildlife species distribution models (SDMs). A LANDIS application to the
distribution of Nyctalus leisleri (Chiroptera, Mammalia) in Molise”.
Under the supervision of the researchers of the Envix Lab, located at the
University of Molise, developed a procedure for evaluating the effects of forest
management on the distribution of species with wide vagility.
This procedure works on regional scale and it based on scenarios for the
evolution of forests, resulting from different kind of forest management.
In particular, a protocol for the use of the software Landis was established, whose
aim was the development of multi-temporal patterns for the potential distribution
of a species of bat closely linked to the forest ecosystem: the Leisler noctule bat.
This approach was applied on a temporal range of 200 years and it is able to
predict the environmental management with lower impact.
The study has focused on the region of Molise, containing areas of the project
Life ManFor. Ideed, this thesis is part of a LIFE+ project ( Project Life+ “Manfor”
C.BD. LIFE09ENVIT000078 - Managing forests for multiple purposes: carbon,
biodiversity and socio-economic wellbeing), particularly in the objectives of
the action ForBD, which concerns actions for the development of panEuropean impact indicators related to forest biodiversity.
For more informations :
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/276267126_Humaninduced_effects_on_the_distribution_of_species_and_
communities_of_Vertebrates_at_different_spatial_scales

•Tutor

Prof. A. Loy (University of Molise- Unimol), M. F. Caliendo (University of Naples
Unina)

•Subject(s)

Landscape ecology, Forest landscape model, Species Distribution Models, Gis,
Landscape metrics, Projected Habitat suitability, Species conservation

•Dates
•Activity

•Tutor

•Dates
•Activity

•Tutor
•Subject(s)

•Dates
•Activity

(March, November) 2011 - 2013
Volunteer in the census of marine bird species (Project Morus), with particular
attention to the Sula (Northern Gannet) and birds belonging to the Skuas.
The goal was the collection of a large amount of data for EBN Italy, in order to
improve the insights of the dynamics of these species presence and migration in
Italian seas.
Dr. De Rosa (Università degli Studi del Molise - Unimol)

August 2011 - 2013
Project “Migrandata” (Post-nuptial migration monitoring of trans-saharan migratory birds).
Organized by: CEDA Matese - Network INFEA Campania within the Regional Program
INFEA, funded by the Campania Region - Department of Ecology - Ecology Sector.
A commission for occasional performances as part of bird ringing and monitoring
of the passage of migratory birds in the Regional Park of Matese
Dr. R. Balestrieri (Cnr), Dr. De Rosa (Università degli Studi del Molise-Unimol)
Data Acquisition and Analysis, census, monitoring

June 2013
Project “A beach for the Kentish plover”, funded by the Campania region (sector
Ecology), as part of the national strategy for biodiversity.
The project involves the census and the monitoring of the Kentish plover and
Little ringed plover

•Tutor

Dr. M. Giannotti (Director of WWF Oasis of Conza)

•Dates

2011, 2012, 2013

Page 2 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

•Activity

•Tutor

•Dates
•Activity

•Tutor
•Subject(s)

•Dates
•Activity

•Tutor
•Subject(s)

Collaborator in fields about birds ringing for scientific research in: WWF Oasis
Serre -Persano, State Reserve of Vivara Island, WWF Oasis Le Mortine
Dr. V. Cavaliere (Vice-president of WWF Campania)

2010, 2011
Project MITO (Italian Ornithological Monitoring), funded by the Ministry of the
Environment, whose purpose was the monitoring of the common species
of birds that breed in Italy. The project is part of the broader agenda PanEuropean Common Bird Monitoring Scheme launched by the European Bird
Census Council (EBCC) that uses changes in the populations of birds
common in Europe as indicators of the state of conservation of nature
Danila Mastronardi
First approach to the understanding of the Farmland Bird Index (FBI)
and Woodland Bird Index (WBI), census

From June 2010 to September 2011
Bachelor of Science in Byologys’ Thesis: “Physiognomic vegetation map of Somma –
Vesuvius complex”. Vesuvius complex” In this thesis I initially presented the flora and
fauna richness of the National Park of Vesuvius, then I concentrated in the preparation of
a map which described the vegetation extension in Somma - Vesuvius. The drafting of
the map derived by investigations of vegetation entity which trod many paths, and then
by the analysis of satellite photo which led to the distribution interpretationof each of
them. Finally, the procedure involved the polygonization of each distribution in GIS
platform to create a map with symbols.
Prof. R. Nazzaro (Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”-Unina)
Geobotany, cartographic analysis, photo interpretation, GIS tools

Teacher for Training
Courses/seminars
•Dates
•Activity
•Organization
•Subject(s)

•Dates
•Activity
•Organization

•Subject(s)

Page 3 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

May 2015
Teacher for Seminar. Practical lesson about "Citizen Science"
University of Naples Federico II- Unina
How to collect data about roadkill, to use geolocators software, to send in many
different ways

February 2013
Teacher for Seminar. Practical lesson about "Landis: Forest Landscape model" and
extensions
University of Naples Federico II- Unina

Structuring, preparing power point, exposure of the seminar, organization of the group of
users for the development of practical experience

Correlator
•Dates
•Activity

September 2014 – April 2015
Correlator for a Master's thesis. The purpose of this thesis was the development of
Habitat suitability for the Common moorhen and Coot in Campania. We then examined
the validity of the models on the field during the Iwc (International Waterbird Census)
comparing the numbers of individuals with the index number of Suitability
Correlator: AA. 2012-2015. Serena Bonanno: tesi magistrale. Master’s thesis. Bachelor in
Biological sciences curriculum in biodiversity conservation and environmental quality,
University of Naples Federico II. Species distribution models for Fulica atra (L., 1758)
and Gallinula chloropus (L., 1758) : A first comparative analysis between Suitability and
Population

•Organization
•Tutor
•Subject(s)

University of Naples Federico II- Unina
O. Soppelsa (University of Naples Federico II- Unina)
Landscape ecology, Species Distribution Models, Habitat suitability,
Landscape Metrics Data Acquisition and Analysis, Census

Training Courses/
Seminars

•Dates
•Organization providing training
•Activity

•Dates
•Organization providing training
•Activity

•Dates
•Organization providing training
•Activity

•Dates
•Organization providing training
•Activity

September 2013
Ardea Onlus association
Attestation of participation “Sampling ornithologic plans : species and methods”

March 2013
Ardea Onlus association
Attestation of participation "Bird migration: Ethology and monitoring"

December 2012
Ardea Onlus association
Participation in the course of Birdwatching (ARDEA)

September 2011
University of Naples Federico II- Unina
Certificate to VIA (Environmental Impact Assessment)

Participation in Congress
• 17- 20 September 2015
Page 4 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

"XVIII Italian Congress of Ornithology (CISO)". Caramanico Terme (Pe) (Registred)

• 15 - 18 October 2014

"X National Congress of SHI (Societas Herpetologica Italica)". Genova (Ge)

• 24 - 25 October 2013

"Second National Conference on Small Mammals". Herculaneum (Na)

Other experiences
•Dates
•Activity

•Link

•Dates
•Activity

•Dates
•Activity

•Dates
•Activity
•Tutor
•Subject(s)
•Dates
•Activity
•Tutor
•Subject(s)

•Dates
Page 5 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

2014 - Today
Production of many documentary videos about:
1) Cnr Work about the Salamandrina perspicillata for Geo&Geo National Tv Program
2) Promotional video of a recycling industry
3) Promotional video of a Evaluation and environmental impact course, related to
University of Salerno (Unisa)
4) Promotional video of an European Project (called oPAC) founded by University of
Liverpool

1)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgMepn0eweA
2) http://www.cyrus-srl.it/
3) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2bkHVCgNX8&feature=youtu.be
4) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G5jKA-UQas8

2012 - Today
Free lance photographer, Movie-maker: GMWedding Sudios, Veseeva Studios,
Memento, MV Studio. Enzo Mainardi Studio.

September 2012
I attended professional photography workshop (Joe Petersburger - Nat Geo).

From June to July 2011 - 2012
Environmental educator in the National Park of Foreste Casentiesi and in WWF
Oasis Orbetello Lagoon (Projects: Horses’ Life, Discover the Casale of Giannella)
Dr. Anna Macali, Panda Avventure S.r.l.
Competence to integrate myself into working groups, education

March 2012
Consultant in the spatial planning of paths for the description of the most important
natural entities along the paths in the National Park of Vesuvius
Dr. P. Hoogstaden, Genius Loci Travel
Descriptive ability and expertise in synthesis, Expertise in Gps systems for the
geolocation and data conversion in GIS platform, cartography

February - April 2012

•Activity

•Dates
•Activity

•Dates
•Activity

Certificate of giving first aid (Io Amico del mio Cuore Onlus)

2011
Various courses of training as an environmental educator for the Panda
Adventures and Save the Children in Fontespugna

February - April 2010
I started a project of review and photographic presentation about the
Museum of Palebotany and Ethnobotany located in the Botanical Garden
of Naples.

http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/Museo/etnobotanica/VF/index.htm
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/Carpospermoteca.htm

•1993-2005

Scout group (C.N.G.E.I.) of San Giorgio a Cremano

Personal skills and
competences
Computer skills and
Competences

Competences: Biogeography, Geoinformatic (Gis), Spatial ecology, Cartography,
Landscape Ecology, Species distribution modeling, Statistics, Digital simulation,
Data Acquisition and Analysis, Spatial Planning with Gis, Strategic Environmental
Assessment (V.A.S), Environmental impact assessment (V.I.A), Risk Assessment,
Innovative use of computer applications in GIS and SIT, Design of Parks and
newsrooms Plans Park, First approach to monitoring plans of protected areas
Sic and Zps, Approach to applied Zoology
Data Analysis Tools: R (Rstudio packages: Biomod2, Dataset, Dismo, gdata,
ggplot2, grid, gstat, Maxent, pRoc, raster, rgbif, rgdal, RSAGA, SDMTools, MigClim,
KissMig, ENMeval, Modestr,IPMpack, SimAssem)

Electronic related software:
ArcGis, Diva-Gis, Q-Gis, Gis-Saga.
Landis II: Forest landscape model (With Extension Packages: Base Harvest – Cohort
statistic)
LANDIS PRO: a landscape model that predicts forest composition and structure
changes at regional scales (basic level)
Fragstats: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps (Landscape Metrics)
Unicor: A species Connectivity and Corridor network simulator
Corridor Design
Linkeage Mapper (basic level) Conefor: quantifiying the importance of habitat patches
and links for landscape Connectivity (basic level)
Marxan: planning conservation of protected areas
LORACS: JAVA software for modeling landscape connectivity and matrix permeability
(basic level)
Mapsource (Garmin): to preparing data and custom maps for Gps struments
Operating Systems: Windows (All Versions), DOS
Database Management with Microsoft Excel and Acces
ReCap, Memento, Maya: For 3D rapresentations.
Page 6 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

Operating Systems: Windows (All Versions), DOS

General Purpose Software: Very good knowledge of office software for most
operating systems: Microsoft Office 2007 and beyond (Windows), Corel Draw,
Photoshop CC (for graphic models), Smart Draw (for Models Workflow)

Hardware Setting:
Use of advanced GPS, use of professional SLR with wide angle lenses and very high
macro lenses, for photo and video storage related to field work.

Social skills and
competences

Organizational skills and
competences

Great team spirit acquired workplace (team working on long-term projects) and extraprofessional (sports)
Excellent ability to adapt to multicultural environments acquired in the workplace
(report on research in the field with people of different cultural levels) and extraprofessional (many extracurricular work during the period of university studies )
Excellent communication skills (high ability to write clearly, effectively communicate,
implement carefully information)
High capacity of organizing the work, setting priorities and taking responsibility gained
through the different professional experiences listed above, where the activities were
required to be managed according to specific deadlines and objectives.
Excellent capacity organizing working groups.
Very good organizational skills developed during my university study and
planning attitude in team work, also located out of my University.

Self-assessment

Mother tongue: Italian
European level (*)

Understanding
Speaking
Writing
Listening
Reading
Spoken interaction Spoken production
English B1 Proficient User B1 Proficient User B1 Proficient User B1 Proficient User B1 Proficient User
Spanish A1 Basic User
A1 Basic User
A1 Basic User
A1 Basic User
A1 Basic User
(*) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

Driving licence

Italy, Category B

Congress proceedings
Valerio, F., Basile, M., Romano, A. A multi-scale approach to model the distribution of Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre,
1789) in Campania (Southern Italy). Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014, Ianeri Edizioni,
Pescara, 2015

Accepted Congress Acts
Basile, M.., Valerio, F., Balestrieri, R., Posillico, M., Mancinelli, A., Altea, T., Cinti,B.D., Matteucci, G. The relationship between
environmental suitability and abundance in Common creeper in central Italy. XVIII National Congress of Ornithology (CISO),
2015

Bonanno, S., Valerio, F., Balestrieri, R. The distribution of Gallinula chloropus and Fulica atra in Campania. XVIII National Congress of
Ornithology (CISO), 2015

Valerio, F., Basile, M.., Sergio, D.D., Balestrieri, R., Posillico, M., Altea, T. The relationship between the presence of endangered
species and species richness. XVIII National Congress of Ornithology (CISO), 2015

Page 7 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

Books
Di Nunzio, M.G., Valerio, F. 2011- Smeriglio. In: Fraissinet M., Mastronardi D., Piciocchi S. I rapaci diurni della Campania (Accipitridi,
Pandionidi, Falconidi). P. 171-175. ALFA Grafica – San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (Na). Codex ISBN 978-88-904432-4-4
Fraissinet, M., Valerio, F., Zeccolella, D., 2011- Falco della Regina. In: Fraissinet M., Mastronardi D., Piciocchi S. I rapaci diurni della
Campania (Accipitridi, Pandionidi, Falconidi). P. 184-185. ALFA Grafica – San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (Na). Codex ISBN 978-88904432-4-4

Work in progress
1) The aim of this work is to study the relationship between environmental suitability and density of hort-toed Treecreeper. Density
estimates have been made through mixture-models and 8 SDMS to assess the environmental suitability. Finally through Generalized least
square models and quantile regression the density in their environment was analyzed 90%
Tutor: Rosario Balestrieri

2) The aim is the advancement in the search for genus "Salamandrina", extending the work presented at the X Congress SHI. This
research is expected to study the climatic niche also for the Northern (not only the Southern) spectacled salamander in order to establish
whether there are barriers which lead to the division in the two species.
30%

Tutor: Antonio Romano

3) Improving the species distribution models: the use of pollinators species-specific in Ophrys insectifera. How to approach to the realized
niche.
10%
Tutor: Antonio Croce

Dichiarazione sostitutiva di certificazione e dichiarazione sostitutiva dell’atto di notorietà ai sensi del D.P.R. 445/28.12.2000 Il sottoscritto
FRANCESCO VALERIO nato a NAPOLI il 04-04-1985, residente a NAPOLI in VIA VILLA BISIGNANO n.70, consapevole delle
responsabilità penali cui può andare incontro in caso di dichiarazioni mendaci, ai sensi e per gli effetti di cui all’art. 76 del D.P.R. 445/2000
e sotto la propria responsabilità dichiara ai sensi dell’art. 46 e 47 del DPR 445/2000 quanto contenuto nel presente CURRICULUM VITAE

Self-certification and declaration in lieu of affidavit pursuant to Presidential Decree 445/28.12.2000 The undersigned FRANCESCO
VALERIO born in Naples on 04-04-1985, residing in Naples in VIA VILLA BISIGNANO n.70, aware of the criminal liability that may be
encountered in case of false declarations, pursuant to and by effect of art. 76 of Presidential Decree 445/2000 and under his own
responsibility declares, pursuant to art. 46 and 47 of Presidential Decree 445/2000 as disclosed in this CURRICULUM VITAE

Francesco Valerio

Page 8 - Curriculum vitae of
Valerio Francesco

References
Antonio Romano
Researcher, National Research Council(CNR),Institute of Environmental and Forestal Biology. Via Salaria Km
29,300 I-00015 Monterotondo Scalo, ROME Italy
antonioromano71@gmail.com

Anna Loy
Associate Professor, University of Molise - unimol.it
a.loy@unimol.it

Transcript of Bachelor degree

Transcript of Master degree

Other Documentation

Correlator

Participation in the national conference on small mammals

Participation on course of BirdWatching

Seminar on environmental education

Stage on environmental impact assessment

Teacher for the Seminar on corse of Evaluation and
environmental impact

A multi-scale approach to modelling the distribution of Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre, 1789) in Campania (Southern
Italy)
Francesco VALERIO1, Marco BASILE1 & Antonio ROMANO1,2,*
1

ARDEA (Associazione per la Ricerca, la Divulgazione e l’Educazione Ambientale), Via
Ventilabro 6, 80126 Napoli

2

Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale del CNR, Via Salaria km 29,300, 00015
Monterotondo Scalo RM. *Corresponding author. E-mail: antonioromano71@gmail.com

Abstract. Development of Species distribution models (SDMs) may fill large gaps in
available information on the spatial distribution of biodiversity. In this work
it was developed and tested SDMs for Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre,
1789), which is endemic to southern Italy; our purpose was to investigate how
models respond at different scale and different variables at regional level, for
Campania. We built two models: one based on Climatic Niche (CN) and another
called Environmental Niche (EN) for which the maximum entropy algorithm
(MaxEnt) was used to predict the two habitats suitability. The response about
validation of two models showed high predictive performance (AUC > 0.9) and
the two methods are comparable in their predictive efficiency. The overlap area
of suitability in the two models identify a large part in the south and in the centre
of the region Campania, while the non-overlap area distribution includes the
northern and eastern part of this region. Not-suitable areas were also distributed
along the western plains and on the coasts. Response curves of CN show new
ecological information for Salamandrina terdigitata: it has high probability
of occurrence for value of temperature ≤ 23-25 °C, for value of precipitation
± 200-300 mm, for low values of variation in precipitation < 40 mm and for an
annual temperature range < 23 °C. Response curves for EN show a correlation to
woodforest classes (high for deciduous and sclerophyllus), lithothypes (high for
sedimentary, low for igneous) and a positive trend for elevation (> 400m). These
two approaches can give a view for occurrence condition in two different ways:
based on climatic and microclimatic conditions. There are new many possible
speculations that could be made about the ecology of this species, like the
intolerance for high values of variation in humidity or temperature, or affinity
for particular litothypes, that can alter the chemical properties of streams.
Riassunto. La carenza di informazioni distributive sulle specie può essere compensata e
indagata attraverso i modelli predittivi di distribuzione delle specie (SDMs). Per
questo lavoro sono stati sviluppati e testati modelli (SDMs) per la Salamandrina

77
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

dagli occhiali (Salamandrina terdigitata, Bonnaterre, 1789), un endemismo
dell’Italia meridionale; lo scopo è stato quello di indagare su come i modelli
rispondessero a diverse scale e a diverse variabili per la regione Campania. Ci
siamo avvalsi di due modelli: uno di “Nicchia Climatica” (CN) ed un altro di
“Nicchia Ambientale” (EN), utilizzando per entrambi un algoritmo di entropia
massima (MaxEnt) atto a fornire le due possibili idoneità. La risposta sulla
validazione dei due modelli ha mostrato alti valori in termini predittivi (AUC
> 0.9) rendendo i due approcci parimenti validi nella loro efficienza predittiva.
L’area di sovrapposizione delle distribuzioni di idoneità nei due differenti modelli
ha identificato zone elettive per la specie nel sud e nel centro della Campania.
La distribuzione delle aree di non sovrapposizione (e quindi di bassa idoneità)
ha interessato invece la parte settentrionale e orientale della regione. Infine, più
intuitivamente, aree non idonee risultano essere anche quelle distribuite lungo
le pianure occidentali e sulle coste. Infine, sulla base delle curve di risposta
nuove speculazioni possono essere avanzate per l’ecologia della specie: essa nella
CN mostra un’elevata probabilità di presenza per valori di temperatura ≤ 23-25
°C, per valori di precipitazione ± 200-300 mm, per bassi valor di coefficiente di
variazione nelle precipitazioni < 40 mm e per range di temperatura annuale <
23 °C. Le curve di risposta per la EN mostrano correlazione per classi forestali
(elevate per le latifoglie decidue e le sclerofille), litotipi (elevato per le classi
sedimentarie, basse per le ignee) ed un andamento positivo per l’altitudine
(> 400m). Questi due approcci possono fornire un’idea per le condizioni di
idoneità in due differenti modi: basati su condizioni climatiche e microclimatiche.
Si possono avanzare nuove ipotesi riguardanti l’ecologia di questa specie, come
la bassa tolleranza per valori elevati di variazione in umidità o in temperatura,
o affinità per particolari litotipi, che possono influenzare le proprietà chimiche
della rete idrica.
Keywords. amphibian distribution, climatic niche, habitat suitability, maxent.

Introduction
Species distribution models (e.g., SDMs; Elith and Leathwick, 2009) have been formerly
applied to amphibians, as to predict distribution in future climate change scenarios (Araùjo
et al., 2006) and the invasion by alien species (Ficetola et al., 2007). The Southern spectacled
salamander, Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre, 1789), is an endemic species of Southern
Apennines (Romano et al. 2009). Information on its ecology, likewise on its biology,
are scattered but it can be speculated that it is similar to the sister species S. perspicillata
(Savi, 1821) (cfr. Angelini et al., 2007). We aim to analyse the potential distribution of
S. terdigitata in Campania Region (Southern Italy), in order to evaluate where to focus
possible future researches and what areas could be subject to eventual conservation efforts.

78
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

Materials and methods
We collected and georeferenced 40 records in three southern regions, obtained both
from our original researches and from recent bibliographic data: Campania (27), Basilicata
(6) and Calabria (7). In order to elaborate the potential distribution we used a two-scale
approach. A large-scale approach was used to elaborate the Climatic Niche (CN) (Pearson
and Dawson, 2003), using a 1x1 km grid. A small-scale approach was used to modelling
the Environmental Niche (EN), using 20x20 m grid. Our intent was to evaluate the two
outputs and to compare the potential distributions. Our strategy in computing the largescale analyses was to reduce clustered data. In doing so, we randomly selected 17 out of
27 presence points in Campania. Otherwise, in the small-scale approach we used only the
record of Campania and was based on 24 occurrence points.
Climatic data were provided by WorldClim (Hijmans et al., 2004). We used eight
variables, that showed a significant contribution to the model and a Pearson correlation
< 0.83: maximum temperature of the warmest month (bio5), temperature annual range
(bio7), mean temperature of the driest quarter (bio9), precipitation seasonality (coefficient
of variation) (bio15), precipitation of wettest quarter (bio16), precipitation of driest quarter
(bio17), precipitation of warmest quarter (bio18), precipitation of coldest quarter (bio19).
Environmental data were provided by Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC; EEA,
Copenhagen, 2007), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Italian Geological Map (GEO)
and the National Hydrographic Network (HYD). Other five variables derived from this
four principal layer. Slope (SLO) and aspect (ASP) derived from DEM, by means of the
software ArcGis 10.1 (Esri Inc, CA, USA), and the Wetness Index (WET), by means of the
package RSAGA (Brennning, 2008) available for free statistical software R (R Core Team
2013). The Edge Contrast Index (ECI) (Hansen and di Castri, 1992) derived from CLC,
excluding gymnosperms, using FragStats (McGarigal et al.. 2002), a Landscape Pattern
Analysis Software. Finally, the Proximity Index (PRO) (Gustafson and Parker, 1992) for
freshwater streams derived from the HYD, by means of FragStats.
The two SDMs were built using the maximum entropy algorithm (Phillips et al., 2006),
performed by software MaxEnt 3.3.3k (Elith et al., 2006). We ran the default MaxEnt settings,
with the exception of the bootstrapping procedure and the number of iteration (1000).
Occurrence records were randomly split in two subsets of data, in the software setting,
with 70% of them that were used to train the model and the remaining 30% used to evaluate
its predictive power. This step was replicated 16 times for the climatic model, and seven
times for the environmental model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic
curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the predictive power of the model (0 to 1) (Phillips
et al. 2006). The MaxEnt output was transformed into binary maps (0 = unsuitable; 1 =
suitable) selecting a threshold of the 10th percentile training presence (Pearson et al., 2007).

79
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

Results
A summary of the two MaxEnt models are reported in Table 1 and 2, describing the
percentage of contribution for every variables and their response curves. SDM based on
climatic variable showed a potential distribution mainly clustered along the Apennine
ridge, with high prevalence in the centre of region and unsuitable areas all around, excluded
the isolated location of Vesuvio and Monti Lattari. The southern part of Campania showed
a large suitability area, except for the coast. Otherwhise the SDM based on environmental
variable contained all the areas included in the climatic model, plus others: the northern
part and the eastern part of Campania. Lastly, large unsuitable areas were distributed into
the western part of Campania, along the coast from the north to the south, comprising a
large part of Campania lowlands (Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Predicted distribution models of Salamandrina terdigitata based on Climatic
Niche (fish-net areas) and on Environemental Niche (light grey areas), and their overlap
(black areas). Actual occurrence of salamanders in grid mashes is reported as a black star
with circle (from Guarino et al., 2012; Basile et al., unpublished data).

80
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

Discussion
The response curves (showed in Tab.1 and Tab.2) in CN model showed a high contribution
of precipitation seasonality (bio15); this means that the species admits a certain standard
deviation in variability of rainfall up to a value of 40mm and could not tolerate a high
humidity change. Temperature range (bio7) exceeding 23°C seems to be among the major
limiting factor for the presence of this salamander. Other variables show a tolerance for
temperature up to 25°C, which becomes lower in the driest period, while mean annual
precipitation values are comprised between 200 and 300 mm. In the environmental model
the positive contribution of the geological substrate (GEO) was higher for dolomite rock
types, clay-limestone and marl; those parameters may represent indirect ecological needs
such as availability of water source and their chemical properties. Indeed some of those
litothypes can present low permeability like volcanic soils that are typically permeable and
endowed of acid aquifers. DEM and CLC (variables with high contribution) showing high
affinity in the range from 400 to 1400 m, where the Apennine forests, mainly hornbeam,
chestnut, holm, oak and beech, occur. Concerning other variables, contrary to expectations,
areas of high wetness index (WET) did not play a key role in the suitability of a given area,
probably because the areas with higher WET were flat, and this species appreciates and
prefers a moderate degree of slope (SLO), in particular if they are on the west and east sides
of slopes (ASP). Some interesting results pointed to the fact that Salamandrina terdigitata
is not a strictly forest species, but also a love-edge (ECI), and finally that there was no
apparent prevalence for water supply (HYD), while mutual proximity of the rivers (PRO)
was a more important factor.
The two models give us different information that can not be processed together. Although
CN shows the probable limits of species range in Campania, however this information
is provided at a coarse scale and can make the planning of future research of new sites
very challenging. Conversely, EN give us very detailed spatially information, but without
climatic constraints, and so, a more generalized and less informative output. Consequently
we think that the most useful and efficient approach to maximize future research effort is
to focus field survey in the areas where the two models overlapped. The lack of overlap in
the northernmost area may be due to a lack of spatial information at finer scale of climatic
variables, which could promote locally a good ability of permanence of the species.

81
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

Table 1. percent contribution and type of effect of each variable included in the climatic
model used to predict Salamandrina perspicillata distribution in Campania (Southern
Italy)
code

variable

bio15 precipitation seasonality
bio19 precipitation of coldest quarter
bio7 temperature annual range
mean temperature of the driest
bio9
quarter
bio17 precipitation of driest quarter
bio18 precipitation of warmest quarter
bio16 precipitation of wettest quarter

%
contribution

Overall effect

28.8
19.4
19.2

negative for high variation
positive form 250 to 350 mm
negative for value > 23 °C

4.9

negative for value > 20 °C

5.5
3.6
3.3

negative for value > 80 mm
negative for value > 150 mm
negative for value > 300 mm

Table 2. percent contribution and type of effect of each variable included in the environmental model used to predict Salamandrina perspicillata distribution in Campania
(Southern Italy)
code

Variable

DEM Digital Elevation Model

GEO Italian Geological Map

%

Overall effect
contribution
23.3
positive for value > 400 m
high probability for the
marly-arenaceous formations,
20.9
clay-limestone formations and
dolomitic sediments
high probability for the

CLC

Corine Land Cover

20.4

ECI

Edge Contrast Index

9.5

ASP

Aspect

9.1

SLO
WET
PRO
HYD

Slope
Wetness index
Proximity Index
Hydrographic Network

6.8
5.5
2.7
1.8

categories Castanea sativa,
Quercus ilex, Acer sp., Fraxinus
spp., Carpinus sp./ Ostrya sp.
positive
highest probability for the
categories West and East
positive
negative
positive
equivalent

82
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

References
Angelini, C., Vanni, S. Vignoli, (2007): Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre,
1789), Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821. In: Fauna d’Italia. Volume XLII,
Amphibia, pp. 228-237. Lanza, B., Andreone, F., Bologna, M.A., Corti, C., Razzetti, E.,
Eds, Edizioni Calderini de Il Sole 24 ORE Editoria Specializzata S.r.l., Bologna.
Araújo, M.B., Thuiller, W., Pearson, R.G. (2006): Climate warming and the decline of
amphibians and reptiles in Europe. J. Biogeogr. 33: 1712-1728.
Araújo, M.B., Williams, P.H. (2000): Selecting areas for species persistence using occurence
data. Biol. Cons. 96: 331-345
Brenning, A. (2008): Statistical geocomputing combining R and SAGA: The example of
landslidesusceptibility analysis with generalized additive models. In: SAGA - Seconds
Out (= Hamburger Beitraege zur Physischen Geographie undLandschaftsoekologie, vol.
19), pp. 23-32J. Boehner, T. Blaschke, Montanarella, L., Eds, http://www.saga-gis.org/
en/about/references.html
Elith, J., Graham, C.H.. Anderson, R.P., Dudik, M., Ferrier, S., Guisan, A., Hijmans, R.J.,
Huettmann, F., Leathwick, J.R., Lehmann, A., Li, J., Lohmann, L.G., Loiselle, B.A.,
Manion, G., Moritz, C., Nakamura, M., Nakazawa, Y., Overton, J.McC.M., Townsend
Peterson, A., Phillips, S.J., Richardson, K., Scachetti-Pereira, R., Schapire, R.E., Soberon,
J., Williams, S., Wisz, M.S., Zimmermann, N.E. (2006): Novel methods improve
prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29:129-151
Elith, J., Leathwick, J.R. (2009): Species Distribution Models: Ecological Explanation and
Prediction Across Space and Time. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.. 40: 677-697
Ferrier, S., Watson, G., Pearce, J., Drielsma, M. (2002): Extended statistical approaches to
modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. I. Species-level
modelling. Biodivers. Conserv. 11: 2275-2307.
Ficetola, G.F., Thuiller, W., Miaud, C. (2007): Prediction and validation of the potential
global distribution of a problematic alien invasive species - the American bullfrog. Divers.
Distrib. 13: 476-485.
Guarino, F.M., Aprea, G., Caputo, V., Maio, N., Odierna, G., Picariello, O. (2012): Atlante
degli Anfibi e dei Rettili della Campania. Massa Editore, Napoli.
Gustafson, E.J., Parker, G.R., (1994): Using an index of habitat patch proximity for
landscape design. Landscape Urban Plan. 29: 117-130.
Hansen, A., di Castri, F. (1992): Landscape Boundaries: consequences for biotic diversity
and ecological flows. Springer, New York.
Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G., Jarvis, A. (2005): Very high resolution
interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int. J. Climatol. 25: 1965-1978.
McGarigal, K., Cushman, S.A., Neel, M.C., Ene, E. (2002): FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern
Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P., Schapire, R.E. (2006): Maximum entropy modeling of species
geographic distributions. Ecol. Model. 190: 231-259.
Pearson, R.G, Dawson, T. (2003): Predicting the impact of climate change on species

83
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

distribution: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 12: 361-371.
Pearson, R.G., Raxworthy, C.J., Nakamura, M., Peterson, A.T. (2007): Predicting species’
distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: A test case using cryptic geckos
in Madagascar. J. Biogeogr. 34: 102-117.
R Core Team (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R
Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL
http://www.R-project.org/
Romano, A., Mattoccia, M., Marta, S., Bogaerts, S. (2009): Distribution and morphological
characterization of the endemic Italian salamanders Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi,
1821) and S. terdigitata (Bonnaterre, 1789) (Caudata: Salamandridae). It. J. Zool. 76:
422-432

84
Atti X Congresso Nazionale Societas Herpetologica Italica, Genova 2014

CISO (XVIII National Congress of Ornithology) *ACCEPTED*
TITLE
The relationship between environmental suitability and abundance in Common creeper (Certhia
brachydactyla) in central Italy
AUTORS
Marco Basile1,2,*, Francesco Valerio2, Rosario Balestrieri1,2,3, Mario Posillico1,4, Andrea
Mancinelli4, Tiziana Altea4, Bruno De Cinti1, Giorgio Matteucci5
AFFILIATIONS
1
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale (National
Research Council, Institute of Biology and Agro-Forestry), Montelibretti, RM
2

Association for Research, Disclosure and Environmental Education ARDEA (Associazione per la
Ricerca, la Divulgazione e l’Educazione Ambientale ARDEA), Via Ventilabro, 6, NA
3

MITO http://mito2000.it/

4

Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Ufficio Territoriale Biodiversità di Castel di Sangro-Centro Ricerche
Ambienti Montani (State Forestry Corps, Territorial Office of Biodiversity of Castel di Sangro,
Research Center for mountain environments) ,Via Sangro, 45, Castel di Sangro, AQ, Italy
5

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo,
(National Research Council, Institute for Mediterranean Agriculture and Forest Systems) Rende, CS,
Italy
* Contact: marcob.nat@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Databases implemented through large scale monitoring programs have interesting potential for the
study of species distribution in relation to the management of populations, especially through the use
of species distribution models (SDM). The environmental suitability (IA) derived by the SDM can be
related to the abundance of a species, to obtain useful information with management applications.
The purpose of this research, related the project LIFE + ManFor C.BD., is to analyze the relationship
between IA and density in forest environment, using a forest specialist species, the common creeper.
In two particles of central forest, Bosco Pennataro (turkey oak forest in the province of Isernia) and
Chiarano-Sparvera (beech forest in the province of L'Aquila), was estimated the common creeper
density through listening points (N = 50) and N-mixture models. The SDM were built using
distributed points of occurrence in Lazio, Abruzzo and Molise, using, in addition to data from Bosco
Pennataro and Chiarano-Sparvera, additional records from the databases of Castel di Sangro UTB
and MITO2000. The final dataset consisted of 176 occurrence records. The SDM was implemented
using six predictor variables that characterize the degree of fragmentation and heterogeneity of the
forest landscape. It were built 8 SDMs using different algorithms for the calculation of the potential
distribution, implemented in package "biomod2" software R. The area under the curve (AUC) was
used for the evaluation of the models. The relationship between IA and estimated density point was
analyzed by two techniques: generalized least squares models (GLS) and quantile regression (RQ).
The SDM has resulted on AUC> 0.9, indicating good predictive performance. The environmental
suitability was significantly different between Bosco and Pennataro Chiarano-Sparvera. The use of
GLS revealed a positive and significant relation between the density and the IA. On the quantile
regression, the slope of the median of all the SDMs is significant, while the slope of the upper
quantiles are significant only for some models. These results, in addition to confirming the empirical

support for the relationship IA-abundance, also highlight the limitations of modeling. The IA, in
addition to predict the maximum limit of abundance, which is not reached in the particles for the
incurring of not modeled limiting factors, can be very low even where the environment can support
a population potentially greater than that achieved. Although the species-environment relationships
are being studied for many years, in this research we reached to a greater detail, allowing to identify
a relationship between the species and some features of the environment, directly managed by man,
such as fragmentation.

CISO (XVIII National Congress of Ornithology) *ACCEPTED*
TITLE
The relationship between the presence of endangered species and species richness
AUTHORS
Francesco Valerio1, *, Marco Basile1, Sergio Di Donato1, 2, Balestrieri Rosario1, 2, Mario Posillico3,
Tiziana Altea3
AFFILIATIONS
Association for Research, Disclosure and Environmental Education ARDEA (Associazione per la
Ricerca, la Divulgazione e l’Educazione Ambientale ARDEA), Via Ventilabro, 6, NA
1

2

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale (National
Research Council, Institute of Biology and Agro-Forestry), Montelibretti, RM
3

Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Ufficio Territoriale Biodiversità di Castel di Sangro-Centro Ricerche
Ambienti Montani (State Forestry Corps, Territorial Office of Biodiversity of Castel di Sangro,
Research Center for mountain environments) ,Via Sangro, 45, Castel di Sangro, AQ, Italy
* Contact: valerio.frank@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The evaluation of the parameters that determine the landscape heterogeneity can provide useful
information for the management and conservation of species and biodiversity. Usually in
heterogeneous landscapes exist high levels of biodiversity, due to its greater number of environments
present. In such contexts the evaluation of species richness, through indexes of biodiversity, can
actually give ambiguous results, equalize endangered to not at risk species. In this study we present
a different approach to the assessment of biodiversity, taking into account the common species, but
that is based on the probability of the presence of endangered species, with the purpose to quantify
the relationship between the probability of endangered species presence and the bird community
richness. The research took place in the SIC of Chiarano-Sparvera (Abruzzo, AQ). At first we have
selected four species (with different habitats) under the Birds Directive, for which we calculated the
potential distribution through MaxEnt: Rock partridge, Collared flycatcher, Red-backed shrike and
Nightjar. The probability of the presence of these species have been used to calculate the diversity of
the landscape, then using the potential distributions of the species as a surrogate metric of landscape.
The metric Diversity (D) was calculated using two different sizes of movingwindow: 1x1 km and
500x500 m. Inside the study area it were conducted surveys on bird communities in 157 points, placed
at a minimum distance of 200 m. On these points were superimposed two grids with different mesh
sizes: 200x200 500x500 m. For each cell was extracted the value of species richness (RS),
aggregating more points if necessary (derived by a database). For each of the grids also have been
extracted the value cells present in ecotonal areas, representative of the most heterogeneous locations.
The relationship between D and RS was analyzed by constructing generalizedleastsquare model that
allows us to model the spatial autocorrelation due to the proximity of the sites. The models were
constructed using both scales available for the D and the RS and evaluated using Lihelihood ratio test
and pseudo-R2. The D it resulted always significant in predicting variations in the RS, showing a
significant improvement compared to the null model. The variability explained (pseudo-R2) increases
with the increase of analysis scale of the bird community when you consider the whole area of study
(pseudo-R2 = 0:16 to 0:21), while decreases with the increase of analysis scale when considering

only areas ecotonal (pseudo-R2 = 0:46 to 0:35). The inverse of the pseudo-R2 may depend on
biodiversity more discoverable in ecotonal areas on a small scale, in contrast to the core areas where
the values of biodiversity are growing thanks to the aggregation of large scale. This study shows that
it is possible to assess the validity of the species "umbrella", where their presence is actually in
connection with high biodiversity values. The results show that the rare species and / or stenoecious
can be used to predict the species richness in an area. This approach may have significant practical
implications in management or conservation plans.

CISO (XVIII National Congress of Ornithology) *ACCEPTED*
TITLE
The distribution of Gallinula chloropus and Fulica atra in Campania
AUTHORS
Serena Bonanno1, Francesco Valerio1,*, Rosario Balestrieri1
AFFILIATIONS
1
Association for Research, Disclosure and Environmental Education ARDEA (Associazione per la
Ricerca, la Divulgazione e l’Educazione Ambientale ARDEA), Via Ventilabro, 6, NA
* Contact: valerio.frank@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Biological and ecological sciences for a long time studied the links between the environment and the
organisms of a given territory. In fact a study about the composition of a faunal area allows us to have
a clear view of his physiognomy, climatic conditions and possible sources of interference. In this
context, in recent years, the use of the SDM proved to be extremely useful . Regarding the following
work were built two SDM, one relating to the species F. atra (Linnaeus, 1758) and one on the species
G. chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758), to evaluate their distribution in Campania. As first step was chosen
Maxent as a model of SDMs, then for the model construction were used a occurrence dataset derived
by 'International Waterbird Census (IWC) for the Campania region. As a set of environmental
variables were included 3 parameters for F. atra (water, slope, height) and 4 parameters for G.
chloropus (water, geomorphology, slope, land cover). It were used 23 occurrence data for F. atra and
22 for G. chloropus; in both cases it was decided to use the 70% of the occurrence for training data
and the remaining 30% for test, for every species we setted up the model for 30 runs, with the
bootstrap parameter. The predictive power of the model was estimated using the receiver operating
characteristic curve (ROC). ROC curves for atra F. and G. chloropus gave AUC values of 0.97 and
0.98, respectively, indicating a good prediction. Subsequently it were selected 34 points from the
Campania suitability map in which to perform a sampling deseign for the verification of the two
species reliability. The next step has provided a comparison of the data obtained from the sampling
design and the expected results from MaxEnt. For both species there were significant correlations
between the capacity of the territory and N individuals observed. For further confirmation about the
model efficiency, for both species was calculated the correlation coefficient r between the expected
and observed data. The value of r in reference to the species F. atra was 0.83, while the value of r in
reference to the species G. chloropus was 0.81; this shows that the correlation is very good. Regarding
the species F. atra we also evaluated the maximum environment capacity (the maximum number of
individuals); It was calculated by a proportion using an area as a reference point (with low
detectability bias). The comparison between N individuals expected and observed shows a good
correspondence in most of the stations; in particular areas with a high N individuals expected coincide
with where there was a great number of coots. Overall, the research has given a satisfactory outcome;
This result takes on added importance when you consider that is the result derived by a single
observation for each station. The study therefore confirms the validity of these models and promotes
them as useful tools in the researcher work. It could also see (by the model) that F. atra prefer lentic
and lotic environments. G. chloropus is characterized by a number of individuals higher in lotic
waters. Future goals of this study are therefore directed to a work of monitoring the health of wetlands
region. It is desirable to continue to make use of the SDM that revealed their considerable predictive
power. It would be useful in addition to enrich the models created by F. atra and G. chloropus of new
environmental variables in order to improve the reliability of the instrument.

Work in progress
Research

A risk assessment analysis (Road ecology).
I'm developing a risk assessment map of the major roads impact on wildlife in Campania region, as coordinator of the project. The map
is divided into critical areas and priority areas of intervention. The first concerns the intersections of major roads with potential corridors
of each species, derived by a binary map of presence/absence calculated by SDMs,the second is derived from the kernel density
analysis of all road impact points

Projects
1) The aim of this work is to study the relationship between environmental suitability and density of hort-toed Treecreeper. Density
estimates have been made through mixture-models and 8 SDMS to assess the environmental suitability. Finally through Generalized
least square models and quantile regression the density in their environment was analyzed 90%
Tutor: Rosario Balestrieri

2) The aim is the advancement in the search for genus "Salamandrina", extending the work presented at the X Congress SHI. This
research is expected to study the climatic niche also for the Northern (not only the Southern) spectacled salamander in order to
establish whether there are barriers which lead to the division in the two species.
30%

Tutor: Antonio Romano

3) Improving the species distribution models: the use of pollinators species-specific in Ophrys insectifera. How to approach to the
realized niche or co-occurence
10%

Tutor: Antonio Croce


Documenti correlati


Documento PDF application francesco valerio
Documento PDF application form
Documento PDF alcuni esempi di applicazioni dal 2000 ad oggi
Documento PDF buono scuola 27274345
Documento PDF cosmai francesco portfolio
Documento PDF 11uz29


Parole chiave correlate