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M John, Solar Stirling Plant .pdf



Nome del file originale: M John, Solar Stirling Plant.pdf
Titolo: Solar Stirling Plant™ PDF, eBook by M. John « ✔Truth & Facts ✔Real Results ✔Real Experiences ✔FAQ ~ ✘Reviews ✘Opinions ✘Scams
Autore: Green Energy System

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Solar Stirling Plant

M John

Warning and Disclaimer
Please use caution when working on any of the projects outlined
within this manual. By reading this manual you agree to that you
are responsible for your own actions. SolarEnergyPlant.com, the
publisher, and the author will not be held accountable for any loss
or injuries.
Moreover, every effort has been made to make this digital book
as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or
fitness is implied. The information provided is on an “as is” basis.
The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor
responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or
damages arising from the information contained in this digital
book.

2 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT

1.0 Introduction
Since you are already interested in a new type of free
energy, you might already know that the Solar Stirling Plant is
by far the most effective and efficient mean for producing
electrical energy.
Unlike the standard PV Panels, the Solar Stirling Plant is by
wide margin easier and cheaper to build, and at the same time
more effective at harnessing the solar energy from the sun.
Using the heat of the sun to provide energy to power your
home or business is an amazing and incredible concept. It is
mind-blowing when you actually consider that the Sun produces
enough energy everyday to sustain the average household’s
electrical needs. Unfortunately, global market forces have been
preventing most people from benefitting the Sun’s energy. If it
was not for the intentional suppression of the use of this type of
solar energy systems, it is quite conceivable that we could have
been using solar power for the majority of our energy needs for a
long time.
Take a moment to think about the value of the sun and its
role as a renewable resource. The amount of solar energy we use
today in no way effects the amount of energy that will be
available for use tomorrow or in 20 years. What is even better

4 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT

about solar energy is that we are not borrowing from our
children’s future or creating greater problems for their children.
The sun produces on average 1,000 watts/per
square meter. Today, with this advanced technology we can get
real close to this figure.

2.0 Components
The Stirling Solar Plant is made up of two main components,
the Stirling Engine and a Parabolic Reflector. In the following
chapter we will discuss the function of each component within the
Stirling Solar Plant.

2.1 The Stirling Engine
The single most unique and main component of the Solar
Stirling Plant, as the name implies is the Stirling engine. The
Stirling Engine uses the heat from the Sun in order to rotate
and produce electrical energy.
The Scottish inventor Robert Stirling invented the engine in
1816, unfortunately the engine did not saw the light of day during
his lifetime. The Philips Company first used the designs almost
hundred years latter in the 1940s.
This

heat

engine

operates

on

the

principle

of

cyclic

compression and expansion of air or other gas at different
temperature levels, which allows net conversion of heat energy to
mechanical work. Like the steam engine, the Stirling Engine is
traditionally classified as an external combustion engine, as all
the heat to and from the working gas is transferred through the
engine wall, while the heat input in the internal combustion

6 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT

engine is by combustion of fuel within the body of the working
fluid.
Unlike the steam engine that uses fluid in both its liquid and
gaseous phases, the Stirling engine uses predefined enclosed
fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as air. This is
why the Stirling engine is known for its high efficiency, quiet
functioning, and practicality, since it can use any heat source in
order to produce energy.
Nowadays, the common commercial use of the Stirling
Engine is as an auxiliary power generator for yachts. Future
implementations are planed for the next generation of nuclear
power plants, since they generate immense amounts of heat, the
main driving force behind the Stirling Engine.
You have already figured it out by now, the greatest thing
about this engine is, it can use virtually any heat source in order
to turn the engine, and what is a better permanent heat source
than the sun.

2.2 The Parabolic Reflector
To fully utilize the sun as a heat source you need a mirrored
(not inversed, but composed of mirrors), parabolic dish to reflect
and focus the sun's energy onto the hot end of a Stirling Engine.
The hot end is the component of the Stirling Engine where the
heat enters the engine.

A parabolic reflector (dish or a mirror) is a reflective device
used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio
waves. Its shape is that of a circular paraboloid, which is the
surface generated by a parabola revolving around its axis. The
parabolic reflector transforms an incoming plane wave traveling
along the axis into a spherical wave converging toward the focus.

Image 1

As you can see from the diagram on Image 1, all the sun
rays coming through the surface L are collected and diverted to
the focus F.
The parabolic reflector’s property to collect and concentrate
all sorts of energy entering the reflector at a particular angle
makes it applicable for variety of electrical devices. It is most
commonly used in satellite dishes.
As we previously mentioned, in order to fully utilize the free
energy from the sun, we have made the parabolic reflector part
of our Solar Stirling Plant. It collects most of the sunrays and
8 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT

concentrates them in to one spot, and that is where the Stirling
Engine will be placed. All this is done without any energy being
wasted.

Image 2

In Image 2, you can see the parabolic mirror, which you will
construct with our help, and the Stirling Engine, which is placed
in center of the focused sunrays. Produces electricity by using the
heat of the reflected and concentrated sunrays.

3.0 The Construction Process
3.1 Building the Parabolic Reflector Dish
Note: If you want you can skip this part all together and buy this type of
dish online, but it will cost you around $100-$150.

Final Result

Needed Material:
 Reflective foil
 Plywood Sheet – 1000mm x 1000mm
The easiest and cheapest way to make such a dish is to cut and
fold a flat cardboard, then glue the aluminum foil on its inner
surface for reflectivity. Cardboard while easy to work with, is not
1 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT
0

highly recommended due to its low durability, but for first time
users is easier and cheaper to work with so you can gain
experience.
We also recommend that you first make a scaled-down version
for practice (for example 1:4 or 1:5 model), using a piece of
paper. If you find the parabolic reflector too difficult to make, a
funnel shaped reflector is almost equally suitable alternative.

Note: Our parabolic reflector will be 5.1” focal length, and 31.5” in diameter.
The following dimensions can be scaled to make reflector dishes of different
sizes, we highly recommend that you first make a scaled down version with
regular paper.

3.1.1 Layout
Step 1
Using a ruler, draw an “X” line on the plywood so in the end the
plywood is divided on four equal parts.

Step 2
Draw a cross on the plywood, so the four parts are now divided in
half and now they make up eight equal pars.

1 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT
2

Step 3
Now draw four more lines that segregate the area into sixteen
equal parts.

Step 4
First separate the median line (vertical middle) into eight equal
parts. Draw four circles such as each inner circle will fall on the
median lines you just drew. The forth-outer circle will land on the
ends of the median lines.

Step 5
Cut off the plywood outside of the outer circle.
Step 6
First cut along the dividing lines except the circles. Then fold the
petals in such manner so line 1 will connect with line 3, line 4
with line 6, line 7 with line 9, line 10 with line 12, line 13 with line
15, and line 16 with line 2. This will make the plywood into a bowl
shape.

3.1.2 Reflective Foil
Unless your sheet is already reflective, a reflective foil
should be applied after the parabolic reflector takes shape.
Aluminum foil for ordinary kitchen use is ideal. A thicker
(heavier gage) foil will be more durable. Aluminized plastic film
such as shiny food and beverage bags, or gift-wrap, is acceptable

1 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT
4

but slightly less efficient and noticeably less durable than
aluminum foil.
Usually the foil is glued to the reflector, most water-based glue
will do. This includes glue made of flour, rice, or starch. To avoid
wrinkles on the foil, the glue must be thin enough so that it flows
easily.
It is easier to glue the foil on a flat sheet than on a parabolic dish.
However unless the sheet is very thin, the process of bending the
sheet will create wrinkles on the foil. Therefore it is best to apply
the foil after the dish is formed. By the way, sheet material that
expands

and

contracts

significantly

with

humidity

and

temperature also tends to create wrinkles on the foil. This is why
cardboard is not an ideal sheet material. The wrinkles reduce the
efficiency. They also shorten the life of the foil.

a) Cutting two trapezoidal pieces out of a rectangular foil
b) Cutting short slots along edges of each wedge

Two identical trapezoids can be cut from a rectangle with very
little waste (fig. 5). Try with used newspaper first to determine
the optimal width, length, and slope, as it depends on the shape
and size of your foil supply. Short slots can be cut along edges of
the trapezoid, so that the foil can overlap instead of wrinkle. The
trapezoids should cover all facets completely, except a circular
foil at the end will cover the inner circle.
Coat the inner surface of a petal thoroughly with glue, however
do not overuse glue if the sheet material (such as cardboard)
may swell when wet. Apply the foil, with the shinny side facing
up. To avoid bubbles, it is best to engage a small portion of the
foil on the petal at first. Keep most of the foil in the air, free of
glue. Then slowly extending the engaged area by pushing over
the foil.

It is best to attach foil near its centerline (along its

length) first. So that it will be obvious how much the foil should
bend and overlap near its edges. It is OK if excess glue smears
over the reflecting surface. The glue can be wiped off later.
It is best to overlap the foil slightly, so that no direct sunlight will
strike the sheet material. For the same reason, it is best to have
a little extra length so that the foil can fold over the rim of the
dish. This prevents ultraviolet sunlight from damaging the
reflector.

1 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT
6

Caution: Do not work with reflective material in direct sunlight, as it may
cause eye injury. Keep your reflector indoors until it is completely
assembled.

When the entire reflecting surface is covered by aluminum
foil, wipe the reflective surface gently with damp, clean cloth.
Wash the cloth frequently as needed. The wiping removes excess
glue, flattens the foil, and improves adhesion. Allow the glue to
dry, which may take a few days if the sheet material is permeable
to water. Then wipe again with damp, clean cloth to remove the
remaining glue smear and smudge.
After you have finished the constriction of the parabolic reflector
dish, we will begin the construction of the Stirling Engine.

3.2 Constructing the Stirling Engine
Now we will construct the single most unique component of
the Solar Stirling Plant, as we stated earlier that is the Stirling
engine.
The Stirling Engine uses the heat derived from the
Parabolic Reflector Dish, which in return derives the energy from
the Sun in order to rotate the Stirling engine.
The table on the next page represents all the needed
materials for the construction of the Stirling Engine. Some of the
components need further fabrication. For those components that
need custom fabrication we have provided detailed schematics.
The detail schematics are presented in the Stirling Schematics
file.
Pay close attention on the table on the next page, especially
the notes section, since in it we have presented the page
numbers for the corresponding schematics in the Stirling
Schematics file.
Below are all the parts needed to assambly the Stirling
Generator. Please pay close attantion , if you can not make them
yourself just go to a local mechanical shop with the designs and
they will make them for you, but I assure you that you can easily
make them yourself and you will have no problems.
1 SOLAR STIRLING PLANT
8

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