Origins of Druidical Astrology .pdf
Titolo: DRUUIDICA PRINNION (Druidical Astrology) by Michel-Gerald Boutet
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by Michel-Gerald Boutet
Star warrior, Val Camonica Rock Art.
This Historical Overview on the Origins of Antique Druidical
Astrology has been written with the special collaboration of Joseph
Monard and David Frawley.
On the Origins of 12 sign Astrology
Twelve sign astrology, traditionaly attributed to the Chaldeans, finds its
origins in the shamanistic lithic cultures of Eurasia. It then reached a higher level of
sophistication with the early Vedic science of the early Indo-Europeans. It was
already very ancient when Hipparchus of Nicaea had catalogued the positions of
some 1022 stars and 49 constellations. By this time, the ancients were already in
possession of a sky chart. They knew that their ancestral homeland was situated in
the stars of the northern skies. This is why the study of stars was very important to
them. The ancient seers saw themselves as star children. Zodiacal constellations
were a thing long familiar to the seers of Antiquity. In 174 BCE Hipparchus
identified a new star in the constellation of Scorpio. He was very eager to chart all
the visible stars, for he correctly suspected that the skies were not eternal. He
made himself famous by discovering the Earth's precession caused by the
oscillation of the rotational axis every 25 600 years. This oscillation affects the
position of the celestial poles by causing a slow shift of the equinoxes. Around 280
BCE, another Greek, Aratus of Soles, gave in Phenomenons and Prognostics, a
very precise description of the skies for the practical use of navigators and farmers.
Aratus, who was born in Cilicia, Asia Minor, and sometime around 320 BCE was
drawing information from the work of Eudoxus (c. 370 BCE). This study was the
first true scientific work on astronomy. The old constellations identified by the
ancients are generally those that run along the ecliptic, those referred to as the
Zodiac and which serve to mark the passing of seasonal time. They also identified
the circumpolar stars, Ursa Major, then called the Great Wain with alpha Draconis
as the Pole Star before 2500 BCE. From the names hinted at in the zodiac, i.e.
Orion and his dog (Sirius), we can guess the general pastoral theme. Some authors
believe that the oldest proofs for the antiquity of Western Astrology are to be found
in the Denderah planisphere artefact dated before 1800 BCE and kept at the
Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. However, it now certain that the time of creation
of the relief is no earlier than 50 BCE during the time of the Greco-Roman period.
because of the astronomical positions of stars and planets. It was also observed
that the uncharted skies without zodiacal representations run along the 36 degrees
latitude. The centre of the band coincides with the position of the southern pole in
2500 BCE. This indicates that the Egyptian astronomers were drawing on a more
northern tradition than their own. Bronze Age Greece of the Minoans and
Mycenaeans (ca. 2500 -1100 BCE) and Old Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1600 -1400
BCE) were just above the 36th latitude. This Greek and Anatolian position
rightfuly hints at a Northeastern Mediterranean origin for the zodiac.
David Frawley, the Vedic scholar and Vedic astrologer, has found through an
exegesis of the Brahmanas, the Yajur and Atharva Vedas, that the vernal equinox
was in the Krittikas (Pleiades; early Taurus) and that the summer solstice (Ayana)
was in Magha (early Leo) thus yielding a date of around 2500 BCE for the Vedic
system. This therefore proves that the Vedic system was contemporaneous with
that of the Brronze Age Micenaean and Harappan cultures.
The concept of astrology as we know it was not only an integral part of the overall
mindset of early Hellenic and Vedic cultures but at its base, a science already
present, so it seems, in ancient Indo-European cosmology. To wit, the concept of
12 zodiacal constellations was already present in the Vedas and the Hittite-Louvite
There is an interesting I.E. myth which illustrates the underlying cosmological idea
for astral symbology:
After its creation from the Cosmic Egg, the World is separated into three parts, one
for the Gods, one for the Mortals, and one for the Titans and Demons. The Upperworld is claimed by the celestial deities, the Middle-world is given to the primordial
Man, the Purusha (skt), or the Ymir of the Eddas and the Green Giant of the
Arthurian Cycles, while the Underworld is devolved to the chthonian inferior deities
or Titans. Henceforth, the celestial waters spew forth from the Cosmic Egg thus
causing the Primordial Flood. From this Great River, comes the Milky Way, home of
the Three Fates, the three Crones or Fairies. The Three Worlds are then supported
by the World Axis, the Cosmic Ash Tree (Eya in Hittite, Osna in Proto-Celtic). The
three roots of the Ash withhold the nine worlds in place and on its trunk is placed
the nine scaled ladder. By this river, there are seven peaks (ascent) with their
valleys (descent) and the Storm God's plain, three sources with their lakes and
streams, and, by which the animals of the Zodiac evolve. In this Ash, on its crest, is
the Eagle (Aquila). In the branches, are the Bearded Snakes (Serpens and Draco),
and below it, the Stag (Leo Major and Minor). These constellations are followed by
the Leopard (Hyades in Taurus), the Wolf (Lupus or Twins/Gemini), the Antelope
(Cancer), the Lion (Leo Major), the Maiden Fate Goddess (Virgo) and the Fish of
the river (Scorpio). Then the Chronocrator, (alpha Draconis) who, in order to
regulate Time (Intertwined Serpents), calls upon his priest, the Wren (alpha Ursa
Minor), who also serves as a messenger between worlds. The King presides over
the sacrifice of an Ox (Taurus) and a Ram (Aries). Then the gods sacrifice the
original Man, the Purusha (Vedas), or Ymir (Eddas), and the Green Giant (Arthurian
cycles). The Earth is created from the Giant's body, from his blood, the earthly
waters, from his flesh, land, from his bones and teeth, the mountains and rocks,
and from his skull, the skies and clouds. In winter, this order is threatened by the
Lord of Death who kidnaps the new-born Sun taking him to the Underworld. The
King sends out his Eagle to find his prince, but fails in the search. Then the Queen
of Fairies sends out her Bumble Bee (Cepheus) from the Hive (Camelopardalis).
Because of its size, it is not detected by the Lord Death, and finds the new Sun in
the under-worldly cavern. The triumphant Sun then returns on the horned
Sturgeon's back (and later on a Dolphin, both for Capricornus). In celebration of his
return, the Queen of Soma has the Mead (Amrita\Ambrosia for Aquarius) of eternal
life poured for the assembly of gods.
In short, this is the cosmological tale which explains the creation of the cosmic
order of the constellations, thus of the concept of astrology.
Masson, Emilia. Le combat pour l'immortalité, chap. 2, Les trois mondes des
Hittites, p. 187-223.
The Indo-European Bases of Astrology
"In the beginning the Golden Embryo arose. Once he was born, he
was one lord of creation. He held in place the earth and this sky."
(Rig Veda, 10.121 vs. 1)
The Bronze Age Clandon Barrow square, Dorset, Brittain.
Space was one of the major preoccupations of Indo-European cosmography
ritual and religion. Selecting the site for the practice of ritual was also a matter of
ritual. Open flat land was chosen to some distance from the dwelling compounds.
It had to be reasonably accessible and sheltered from the wind. Usually by a rock
ledge or hedge of trees. This enclosure was refered to as a Nemeton in Old
Celtic. The priests would then have the area mapped, aligned with an easterly
orientation, and measured using the sacred grid . A rectangular space was
marked out by digging trenches around the lot. Four causeways were built at
each of the cardinal points with the eastern portion closed to access since this
was the Sun's Door. No one who was not properly ordained could penetrate the
holly site. The profane stood and watched from some distance to the West as the
officiants performed the sacrifices. Before entering the site, the priests also had
to perform certain purification rites in order to be made worthy for the gods. To
each of the East, South, and North sections were fires. The main oblation fire
was to the Northeast where the Summer Sun rises. The West side was
considered to be in the kingdom of the dead where the Sun died, so it was left
unlit and made accessible for the communicants. Wicker mats of woven straw or
reed were placed by the main fire so that the invoked gods could rest upon them.
Celebrants tended the fires as the priest summoned the gods by name. Oblations
of nuts, fruits, cereals, and clarified butter or goat's blood were poured onto the
fires in honour of the communal bond between mortals and immortals . The
priest who invoked was the Hotar  There were many other officials of the
priestly craft present at the rituals namely the Acolyte, who brought and removed
the utensils, the Cantor who recited the hymns and the Master seer who watched
over the many details. In this system of order (litus), one tiny error and the ritual
backfires on the entire community.
"Sky and earth, these two who are good for everyone, hold the Order and bear
the poet of space (Sun). Between the two goddesses, the two bowls that give
birth magnificently, the pure sun god moves according to the laws of nature." (Rig
Veda 1.160 vs. 1)
Cimmerian Bronze Age mirror, Crimea.
EARLY VEDIC INDO-EUROPEAN ASTROLOGY
All the various Indo-European mythologies have astrology at their foundation.
Starlore is at the root of its entire philosophy. In fact, the Vedantins maintain that
the Purâna, which signifies the "ancients", and which was said to contain a
hundred million sentences, all written in the stars, were organised into visual
patterns (constellations) at a very remote time! This original Purâna of the Vedic
scriptures is the core of all wisdom given to us by the Brahma. This Testament of
the stars, in the form of astrology, has very slightly diverged from one culture to
an other. The esoterical lore of the Brahmans claims that the Rudras (Kumaras,
Adithyas, Gandharvas or Asuras), the highest of the Devas, came down to the
earthly plain to instruct humanity. They were regarded by the wise men as
architects of the cosmos sent to Earth to reorganise the visible world. They were
also at the head of the fifth celestial hierarchy and their astral sign was Makara
(Capricorn). The legends say that this happened a million years ago when the
very first races of humans were entering the earthly plane. They gave man the
cult of the serpent for they themselves were seen as dragons of wisdom (Nagas).
The Makara sign was at times represented as a crocodile but more often as a
dolphin. The dolphin, which is also present in Greek myths and in Celtic myths as
the porpoise or merman. It symbolises spirit emerging from the primordial waters.
It may be argued that the myth originated in Sumer. Nevertheless, the Lepenski
Vir sandstone sculptures of the Danube dated 6000 - 5000 BCE represent fishmen or mermen that parallel the Sumerian myths.
When looking at the myths, and Hittite art in particular, we are struck by their
close resemblance with the Sumerian motifs. Around 2600 BCE, the Sumerians
were indeed in close contact with various I.E. peoples. From 4000 to 1700 BCE,
the vernal point was in fact in Taurus. Now, the Hatti who spoke Hattili, were a
non-Indo-European people who might very well be of the same culture group as
the Sumerians. These people were overtaken by the Indo-Europeans who came
to Anatolia via the Bosphorus or the Black Sea, if not from the islands of the
Aegean Sea (James Mellart, 1962; 1964; 1981). The two peoples mingled,
resulting in the Hittite empire whose capital was Hattousas (now Boghazköy).
Hattousas was at the head of a mighty empire that had ties and contacts with the
ancient cultures of Mesopotamia (Sumer + Elam), as well as those of Egypt and
Canaan. Records show that the Sumerian and Elamite languages (non-I.E.) were
spoken in the mesopotamian valley around 3000 BCE. Colin Renfrew believes
that a pre-I.E. language was spoken in Anatolia as far back as 7000 BCE. Dr.
David Frawley, reminded me in a letter that Aratta was an ancient name for
Panjab mentioned in several Vedic texts and particularly in the Mahabharata.
And that it was also the land of the Druhyus (Proto-Celtic Cimmerians), the
western most Vedic people said to have moved into and colonised Central Asia.
He also believes that this indicates that the Sumerians were trading with
Harappan India, including the Panjab. And that such people gave them chariots
is quite plausible. Any Proto-Celtic-Aratta connection would bring them into
We know from written records that the Sumerians were in the possession of a
zodiac that seems to predate those of the Greeks and Babylonians. According to
a very ancient Sumerian legend, the king of Uruk, Enmerkar, wanted to subdue
the prosperous city of Aratta in Iran. For this, he sent to Aratta across seven
mountain ranges, his messenger bearing gifts of gold and silver. This because
the two kings could not agree on the terms. After a long and perilous trip, the
messenger grew weary, thus forgetting parts of the long message. This incident
created the need for some form of written record, and so prompted the creation
of cuneiform writing. Enmerkar was said to have engraved the symbols on a clay
tablet so that the messenger could remember his lord's exact words. This
account is interesting in many ways. For one, it relates of cosmological space
that is found in astrology, and two, it speaks of the northern connection above the
36 th latitude. Seven is an important numeral in relation to the seven Rishis
(Bulls), moving stars or planets, and Aratta can easily be compared with the
Greek and Celtic word Aratos for "charioteer". Again a powerful astronomical
symbol in that it represents a star in Auriga close to the North Pole. One of Ursa
Major's most ancient names was in fact the "Great Chariot". The constellation of
Auriga also lies to the North. The Greeks believed that Erichton  (Aratos ?)
king of Athens, had invented the Chariot. Alpha Auriga is the brightest star of the
constellation. It was called Capella, "the Goat Star" for it was said to represent
Amalthea, Jupiter's nurse. Capella shines with a golden tinge at the zenith on
February nights. In Antiquity, this would have taken place around the winter
solstice. Strange enough, Capella is a double star difficult to separate even with
a telescope. One of its two stars, much like our own Sun, is on the white
spectrum while the other is of a yellow-red tinge. Did not Enmerkar, the Sumerian
king of Uruk have gifts of silver and gold to offer the Aryan overlord of Chariots?
It is therefore possible that these two stars were not as close then as they are
now. If one looks closer at the Sumerian legends, one finds many overlapping
details with those of the Aryanic peoples. The wild-man of the Gilgamesh cycle
for example, bears much resemblance with those found in Scandinavian, Celtic
and Vedic myths. This takes us to the imagery found in astrology as well as in
The Rig Veda compares the two world halves as two bowls, one for sky and one
for earth. These two parts are likened to two parents who in turn look over their
son "the clever charioteer with the power to make things clear and purify the
universe by magic". What is meant here, is that the Sun Child dispels darkness,
thus clarifying the world. And it goes on to say that "from the dappled milk-cow
(earth) and the bull with good seed (sky), every day he milks that is his seed
(Sun). Most artful of artful gods , he (Tvastr the Creator) gave birth to the two
world halves that are good for everyone. He measured apart the two realms of
space with his power of inspiration and fixed them in place with undecaying
pillars (astronomy, astrology and sacred geometry)" .
The key constellations for the understanding of early I.E. astrology are certainly
the Boots, Ursa Major and Taurus star groups. These, form a mythological motif
which describe the narrow relationships between sky observation and farming
practices during the Neolithic period. This involves Bootes, "the ploughman" and
the Septemtrion  stars which form the seven principle stars of Ursa Major.
The Alpha star of Boots was called Arcturus  and it was said to represent "the
watcher of the seven oxen". These stars were called so because of their slow
rotation around the Pole Star, Alpha Draconis and remindful of the movement of
bulls as they plough. The Aryan wise men maintained that from these stars
emanated seven rays that influenced our solar system, and that in turn, these
seven forces were governed by seven deities whose bodies in turn, were
manifested by the seven planets. From this cosmological stand point, the seven
Rishis or stars from the Great Plough (Ursa Major) were in relation to the
Pleiades, the Seven Sisters, their wives. In Irish lore, they were also called "the
seven sisters" . One of these was called the "Old Woman", or Hag of Beara
who appears as a triune goddess with her sisters Cailleach Bolus and Cailleach
Corca Duibhne. She was also named Bui (Yellow) wife of Lugh, the
polytechnician. In the Book of Lecan it is said that she had seven youthful
periods, marrying seven husbands and having fifty foster-children, the primordial
founders of nations.The Pleiades express the female aspects of the seven cows
as opposites to the male Rishis represented by the seven bulls . These
fourteen powers combined, act through seven of the astral signs in accordance
with the Brahma (Dagda) via the unseen spiritual Sun often referred to, by
esotericists, as "the Great Central Sun" or Spiritual Sun. Yogins understand this
as the guiding principle of the three rays of energy emanating from the cosmic
centres. Neo-druids claim to a similar notion in the form of the Tribann (three
rays). These invisible forces, seen only through the inner eye are termed as
"akashic", "electric", and "pranic". In turn, these seven Rishis, take part in the
seven cosmic orders of the universe. On earth they manifest themselves as the
first race of primeval giant Manu  who fathered the seven Manavas and who
sired the first humans. 
And what about the DRUIDS?
The readers have noticed noticed by now that we quoted celtic terminology in
matters of astronomy and astrology. Indeed, the masters in those matters were
the DRUIDS. As part of their various specialities let’s name astronomy and
astrology, just to name a few. These were covered under the general term of
SIREULA for "Science of Stars". Astronomers were called Sireulacoi and, at least
on the Goidelic (q-Celtic) side, astrologers went by the name of Retlodruuides for
The Seven Sages
Gautama or Marìci
Bharadvàja or Angiras
Visvâmitra or Pulaha
Sulacsus / Eulacsus (Wisdom)
Jamadagni or Kratu
Vasistha or Pulastya
Kasyapa or Bhrgu
Atri or Daksa
The seven principle Fairy stars of the Pleiadean group, were at some remoter
time part of the Polar groups. Slowly, they migrated to the summer regions thus
creating the allegorical shift from the kingdom of Pwyll to that of Arwn (again
Aratus?). Since then, the Pleiades have received a negative influence. The
Welsh texts illustrate how Arawn was the hunter king of Annwn (Andumnon), "the
No-world", name of a metaphysical concept of one of the "other worlds", which
was confused by some people with the *Anderodumnon = the "Nether World"
They go on to mention that Pwyll of Dyfed while hunting in Gyn Cuch notices a
pack of strange hounds onto a stag, onto which he sends his own hounds. These
were Arawn's hounds. For this, he rebukes him of his discourtesy. To make
amends, Pwyll is forced to comply with Arawn's conditions; slay his enemy
Hafgan and in his guise, share the bed of Arawn's queen for one year without
making love to her. Pywll fills these conditions and is permitted to return to Dyfed
where he is hailed not only as their king but as lord of Annwn as well. This myth
expresses the division of time into two half-years, as the old celtic notion of
Semorotlio qnd Giiemorotlio: Hafgan, <*Samocandos ="Summer White",
represents the Bull of the warm and light half, while the Stag, Pwyll, represents
the other half's cold and dark aspects. "From the Dragon came a Bull, and from
the Bull a Dragon, the Cow-keeper's (Boots) dark is under a mountain (Mount
Haemus)" sang the initiates of the Orphic mysteries. And in the Bhâgavata
Pûrana, Rîchabha, the Ox, is called "son of Mêru-Dêvi, the cosmic polar axis.
Mount Meru was the World Mountain of the Vedas.
In a much later Celtic lore, the mountain was more a mound called Tamra alias
Taura (>Tara), the Knoll, thus punning with Taruos for Bull. It was recorded that
the Taurean bull had one day strayed far from his northern kingdom on West to
Southern India. In another account, it is said that Rohini, Alpha Tauri, or
Aldebaran, fathered Dhruva, the Pole star. The myths are clear; astrology has a
In accordance with the solsticial observations, was the highly anticipated rise of
the Pleiades at the beginning of May. The open cluster of the Pleiades was
likened to a bag's opening. Most celebrated of the stars of the Pleiadean cluster
was beyond doubt, Maia. Maiia in Gaul, was the tutelary goddess of the home,
and this area of the "summer skies" as the ancients called it, was in truth home to
the souls of the Celtoi. Then, in November Maia falls again below the horizon in
November just in time for the coming New Year and the Samanios celebrations.
This event was not just highly praised by the Celts, but by all the other Vedic I.E.
peoples as well.
Featured on a Cimmerian Kurgan mirror (dated 625 BCE.) in an eight-fold sunwheel pattern, are a series of very archaic looking zodiacal beasts. The artwork
is unmistakably Greco-oriental in design, but with the characteristic Cimmerian
animals; the boar, bear and panther. We are therefore in the presence of a ProtoCeltic culture in contact with a Scythic Indo-Iranian culture. Now, If we were to
read this chariot wheel in zodiacal order (with Celtic Solar time division and Celtic
and Aryan divinities), we would get:
1st HALF YEAR:
DARK HALF/GIIEMOROTLIO "Cycle of sprouts" (long nights +
1st QUARTER/CENGIAMOS (Fall)/ALBA ELUETIAS (Fall equinox; "acme of
plenty"): 1. BHAGA ("brother of dawn"), BHAVA (existence), Two sphinxes
(Scales/Libra, equal length of day + night) with Griffin (western winds);
1st HALF QUARTER: 2. INDRA, Bear (Ursa Major), Eagle (Altair in Aquila) and
Dog (Canis Major, Sirius); Protector: Dyeu-Pater/Dis Pater, in Latin, "father god,
father death". Also known as Prajapati, "Lord of creatures" in India, Dagos Deuos
in Gaul, and Zeus in Greece. He is Grandfather of the world, the God who grants
boons and his consort is the Earth goddess.
2nd QUARTER/GIAMOROTIO (Winter)/ARTUANA ALBA (Winter solstice; "stone
hard acme"): 3. MITRA and Varuna or Twins (Gemini; also the Brick Stack),
fighting a Griffin (northern winds);
2nd HALF QUARTER: 4. VARUNA, Tiger and Ram (Aries, vernal point);
Protectors; Yemonoi, "the Twins", Yama and Yami in Sanskrit and Castor and
Polux in Greek tradition. Yama is king of the dead, sovereign over the Southern
realm with his sister Yami is considered as the first human.
2nd HALF YEAR:
LIGHT HALF/SEMOROTLIO "Cycle of seeds" (long days + short
3rd QUARTER/UESARA (Spring)/ELARIS ALBA (Spring equinox; "lively acme"):
5. DAKSA, Two Sphinxes (Libra, equal days + nights) holding World Pole
(Dragon) with Bear-cub (Pole Star, Ursa Minor);
3rd HALF QUARTER: 6. ARYAMAN/ARIOMANOS, Lion (Cat Star-Hyades)
devouring Bull (Taurus) with Boar (Alioth, Mizar/Alcor and Benetnash in Ursa
Maj.); Protector; Perkwos or Perkunas, in Lithuanian and Parjanya in Sanskrit,
"the oak thunder god" and/or Belios, "bright", the Celtic solar-fire god. Also
Rudra, "the howler" or "ruddy one", god of tempest who is one of the eight
Rudras: Bhava, Sarva, Pasupati, Ugra, Mahadeva, Rudra, Isana, and Asani (1existence, 2-he who has arrows, 3-lord of cattle, 4-dread, 5-great god, 6-howler,
7-ruler, and 8-thunderbolt).
4th QUARTER/SAMOROTIO (Summer)/ERUINA ALBA-ALBA SAMI (Summer
solstice; "the farming acme, acme of summertime"): 7. VIVASVAT/GRANNOS
("beaming", the Sun), Aditi or Cybele holding panthers (Cassiopea ?);
4th HALF QUARTER: 8. AMSU, Two Lions (Leo major + minor ?) fighting with
two Goats (Capella and Menkalinan in Auriga); Protector; Aditi, wife of world
wisdom and mother of the eight Adityas. Cybele is a nature goddess of the
ancient peoples of Asia Minor, and/or Bouenda, "the End of Cows", who gave the
Milky Way, Rohini, "the Red Cow", wife of the Moon and a constellation
(Gaul/India). Rohini is mother to Samkarsana Balarama, similar to the Celtic
Ambactos/Amaethon, (Samkarsana = "he who draws or ploughs".
- Note that the constellations found in this zodiac are almost all from the
circumpolar area. These constellations never descend. Being too far north they
endlessly circle around Dhruva, the Polar star. The height of these stars is equal
to the latitude they are observed on, which is about 43 degrees noon, 49 degrees
in Paris. The conclusion to be drawn from this, is that this zodiac originated
somewhere in North Eurasia and gives a good indication on the original
homeland of the early Indo-European peoples. Originally the 12 sign zodiac
comprised of eight signs. These were known as the eight Adityas, the sons of
Aditi (infinity), a solar goddess who were: Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuna, Amsu,
Indra, Daksa, and Vivasvat. A half year contains 182.625 days, a quarter year
91.3125 days, a half quarter year contains 45.65625 days and a sixteenth of a
solar year amounts to 22.828125 days (16 = Sun's acme).
I KUB VII 1+KBO III 8+14/KUB XXV 33 tablets:
"Leashed was the Great River and its current:
1. Leashed were the fish in position (Sagittarius);
2. The high mountains; deep valleys, the prairie of the Storm God in
the reeds (Capricornius);
3. Leashed the Wings of the Eagle (Aquarius);
4. Leashed the Bearded Serpents intertwined (Pisces);
III (KUB XXV 37) The King sacrifices for Ziparwa,
5. a Ram (Aries);
6. a Bull (Taurus);
For the Eya Tree a Ram and a Bull they slay for above.
(KUB XII 62) to the True GiSh-RU, under which sleep the New-born
Lion and Deer of the Year;
7. Leashed a Leopard in a Lost Land (Gemini);
8. Leashed a Wolf in a High Place (Cancer);
9. Leashed a Proud Lion (Leo);
10. Leashed a Gracious Antilope and its milk (Virgo);
11. Leashed the throne of the Tutelary divinity (Libra);
IIII And Ishtar (the Star) said this to Maliya, and Maliya repeated it
to Pirwa; and Pirwa repeated it to Kamrusepa. And Kamrusepa
saddled his horse and trotted away to the Great River (Milky Way).
12. The three World Horses: White Horse, Red Horse, and Black
V And she conjured Kamrusepa the Great River. And then in it, She
conjured the Fish in the water first. The Great River and its current
The Fish were unleashed.
1-The Hair-Brush (Pleiades); 2-the Bull of Anu (Taurus); 3-Anu's
True Shepherd (Orion); 4-the Old Man (Perseus); 5-Gamlu Sickle
Sword or Harpé (Auriga); 6-The Great Twins (Gemini); 7-Al.Lil
(Procyon or Cancer/Crab); 8-Lion or Lioness (Leo); 9-Furrow
(Spica); 10-Balance (Libra/Scales); 11-Scorpion (Scorpio); 12Archer (Sagittarius); 13-Goatfish (Capricorn); 14-Great Star or
Giant (Aquarius); 15-The Tails (Pisces/Fishes); 16-The Great
Swallow (Piscis SW with Epsilon Pegasi); 17-The Goddess
Anunitum (Piscis NE with middle part of Andromeda); 18-Hireling
In the Hindu myths, the house of the husband and wife (pati and patni) comes to
life through the shape-shiftings of the life principle which spews forth a
procession of beasts and farm animals: "She became a cow; he became a bull
and united with her, and from this all the cattle were born. She became a mare;
he became a stallion. She became a female ass; he became a male ass and
united with her, and from this all whole-hoofed animals were born. She became a
she-goat; he became a Billy-goat; she became a ewe; he became a ram and
united with her, and from this goats and sheep were born. Thus he created all the
pairs, even down to the ants."
A thing about the Brahmic contribution into the field of calendar and astrological
matters. On the Vedic ground, there is an obvious parallelism with the Druidical
input of the Celtic side: same formulas, but different names.
I- Solar path, the zodiacal cutoff:
Current terms Vedic Celtic
Aries the Ram Mesa = Ram Cuti Prinnios
Taurus, the Bull Vrsabha = Bull, Steer Giamoni Prinnios
Gemini, the Twins Mithuna = Pair, Couple Semiuisoni Prinnios
Cancer, the Crab Kartata = Crab Equi Prinnios
Leo, the Lion Simha = Lion Elembiui Prinnios
Virgo, the Maiden Kanya = Maiden Edrini Prinnios
Libra, the Scale Tula = Scale Cantli Prinnios
Scorpio, the Scorpion Vrsika = Scorpion Samoni Prinnios
Sagittarius, Archer Dhanus = Archer Dumanni Prinnios
Capricornius, Goat Makara = Crocodile Riuri Prinnios
Aquarius, Water-bearer Kumbha = Water-jar Anaganti Prinnios
Pisces, the Fishes Mîna = Fish Ogroni Prinnios
Karka and Karkataka instead of Kartaka;
Çapa instead of Dhanus.
As in Celtic, several opportunities for punning (çlesha in Sanskrit)
were seized, for instance:
Dhanus/Dyanus: ArcherDry ground from Mainland or IsleGood;
Vrsika/Vrsiha: ScorpioShear Makara: CrocodileScreamer;
Mithuna: Pair from couplepaired, from interchangeable.
Common points: the timing of each zodiacal twelfth of year.
The Vedic solar year started from Spring Equinox, the Celtic one
from Fall Equinox. Except for the Ram and perhaps with
Giamonios punning with Gamos = bovine, the name meanings
were quite different.
On the Vedic part, these were almost the same as in most
civilisations East and West of Mediterranea. This suggests massive
exchanges with the Sumerian culture from a quite remote past.
II- Lunar path:
Celtic - Gaulish
# 1 Çaitra = Cut-off
# 6 Cutios
# 2 Vaisâdha = Weaver
# 7 Giamonios
# 3 Jayistha = Victorious
# 8 Simiuisonios
# 4 Asâdha = Arrival
# 9 Equos
# 5 Srâvana = Flowing
# 6 Bhâdrapada = Lucky
# 7 Åsvina = Horsewoman
# 8 Karttika = Shearing
# 9 Agrahayana = Peak
# 10 Pausa = ??
# 11 Mâgha = Strength
# 12 Phâlguna = Split
# 10 Elembiuios
# 11 Edrinios
# 12 Cantlos
# 1 Samonios
# 2 Dumannios
# 3 Riurios
# 4 Anagantios
# 5 Ogronios
Purusottama; Leap Months: MIDX = Month in duplication and
Ciallosbuis Sonnocingos = Checking of sun-course.
Åsvavija = Horse in place of Asvina Margasirsa = Summit replacing
Agrahayana Taisa = ?? instead of Pausa
Asadha = Arrival || Demise
Bhadrapada = Lucky || Happy walk
Margasirsa = Summit || Death
Màgha = Strength from Power || Gift
Common points: general mechanism of system two half-months = waning
Moon (krsnapaksa in Sanskrit) then waxing Moon (suklapaksa);
at least with the earliest Vedic system; and later-on, with the
extent of Southern conquests - some Southern kingdoms chose to
start months at New-Moon, for five-years quinquennia.
different beginning of year 60 years "siecles" on the Vedic side Vs
30 years on the Celtic side.
One leap-month name only on the Vedic side Vs two on the Celtic
Golden Gaulish coin of Tasciovanos, 1rst century B.C.E.
It is very unlikely that the Druid's system of astrology would diverge to the point
expressed in the reconstructed models of Carol Carnac's and Helena Paterson's
Celtic Astrology, or the Astrologie Gauloise of Edgar Bliss. Did not Cassidorus
say that the Getae knew twelve signs? The charioteer may change but the
vehicle, the sun-chariot, remains on the same path. A close scrutiny of the Irish
manuscripts reveals a system halfway between the Hindu and Greek systems. In
fact, astrology originates in the primordial myths of Manu/Maine/Mannus found in
all the I.E. traditions. "Yama the first son of the sun, becomes the first mortal man
and later god of the dead, while Manu, the sun's son in post-Vedic versions, is
said to be the ancestor of the human race but is not deified." Astrology can be
likened to a movie screen which sets the visual representations of the zodiac in a
very narrow band. The Greek poets called it Eurydice's belt. Eurydice (Eurudikè)
was Orpheus' wife. Orpheus almost succeeds in bringing her back from Hades,
Land of the dead, back to the Land of the Living. The same myth is found in the
Celtic tradition. It was said that the first thing written in ogham was the Birch sign
writen seven times to prevent Lugh's wife from being abducted into the
Otherworld. Dechtirè  was thus saved to give Lugh a son called Setanta .
This sets the motion of the Sun's path through the zodiacal signs.
The signs are always 12 to a number at a 30o angle. The Sun moves at about
one degree per day and it takes roughly 30 days, a little more than one lunar
month to move from one sign to the other. Therefore, each morning the Sun rises
at a different point on the horizon. In one year the Sun will have covered 360 o
taking 365.2422 days (365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 49.6 seconds) to return
on the vernal point where it began its cycle. This value is almost the same as
2000 years ago (the Sonnocinxs took then 354.2423 days).
-Why is the tropical year longer than the zodiacal degrees? ...For three reasons:
Because the circle-division into 360m is an arbitrary mathematical convention
having been inspired by its approximation against the estimated duration of the
year in number of days, worked out in order to be divisible into twelve integers.
Because the time taken by the Earth's revolution around the Sun is not an integer
multiple of its own rotation.
Also as its orbit is slightly elliptic, resulting in a non constant revolution speed
while the definition of the zodiacal constellations is inaccurate and approximate in
mesure. Tradition has it that certain stellar archipelagos or star clusters, were so
dense and others so sparse, that large constellations would take over the two
bordering signs, while the small ones lost part of their astrological houses.
Certain constellations also overlap during the part of certain months. For
example, in Capricorn the Sun rises in the stars belonging to Aquarius.
-Why the 7 Birches? Simply because the name for birch was Betua, punning with
Bitu for "world" and that there were seven worlds or moving stars for the known
planets, and Sun and Moon included; also, that 7 was the Earth's and Saturn's
acme (Space = 4 corners + 3 orders). There were also as we have seen, seven
sages, also called the Seven Peaks of Knowledge. 'B' is therefore for Benna =
mountain peak also punning with Bena for woman. The ancients knew this
because the planets were moving, that they were not in a fixed pattern and not
innumerable much like the stars. The Greeks had the Sun start its course in
Aries. This was termed as the vernal point. Why vernal? Because these are the
points that correspond to the two equinoxes and that Ver is Latin for "spring".
These events come twice yearly when the days are at exact length with the
nights. Western astrologers have the first vernal point at the spring equinox,
while the Druids had their vernal point start in fall, just ahead of the advent of the
new year, starting with the consecutive Full Moon.
The world giant  here looses his head which is in Aries. The indexing of the
Moon on the late September horizon is much more convenient than it is with the
spring lunar conjunction. Also, the Sun is off from its initial point at about .1
second every year. This accounts for the displacement of two signs since the
Astrologers first devised the Zodiac. The true spring vernal point is now moving
from Pisces to Aquarius. The phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes
was first explained by Hipparchus the Greek astronomer in 128 CE. It was he
who divided the circle into 360o, divisible into 60 minutes of 60 seconds, along
with the first catalogue of stars. "That the fixed 'stars' were fixed, but not moving hence the long-term change in the position of the equinox, the 'first point of
Aries', against their background - had been known from the time of Hipparchus,
and the precession of the equinoxes given quantitative meaning in the Almagest.
There were two schools of thought: one stating that the equinoxes would
eventually arrive back where they started after 36,000 years, or the "trepidation"
theory stating that they first moved one way for a while and then moved back
again, and so on. Ptolemy belonged to the first (correct) school, and worked out
the amount of precession. His theory became the normal teaching of the
This being said, there are many such as J. Monard who do not give much
credence to Astrology. In fact, he doesn't give much credit to the arbitrary notion
of the "Age of Aries" or "Age of Aquarius" (even though we hear so much about
it, he says). - Adding that it is "a notion without significance and without scientific
or astronomical value having no incidence on human determinism". Going on to
say that the Sun is running at 19.4 kilometres per second toward its apex, and
that the Earth orbit being a helical path within the Galaxy means that the Earth
never gets back at the same spot in Space. Or again that, the zodiacal
constellations are a mere optical convention. And that all this means that there is
no actual relationship between Earth and the Space environment. Therefore, for
the sceptic, this notion of "Piscean Age" or "Aquarian age" is meaningless.
But for the holder of Druidic or Vedic Science, Astrology reflects a higher plane
not perceivable to the materialistic minded. The world, as we perceive it with our
fleshy eyes and minds, is but an illusion. For the eyes of mind are clouded by
Maya, Morigena's Veil, or Manauitanos's Cloak of Invisibility. The true workings
of Astrology can only be perceived through the eyes of the Soul! Or as the
Ancients had it: "Astra inclinant, non necessitant (The stars impel (incline) but do
not compel (necessitate))."
Cernunnos, the Celtic Serpent Bearer akin to the Greek Ophiuchos initiating the
yearly cycle on the Fall Equinox. Detail from the Gundestrup Cauldron.
II. Druidical Astrology
On Uindonnos-Cernunnos, Lord of the Zodiacal Beasts:
"Huge of stature as the man had told me that he was, I found him
to exceed by far the description he had given me... And he only
spoke to me in answer to my questions. Then I asked him what
power he held over those animals. 'I will show thee, little man' said
he. And he took his club in his hand and with it struck a stag a great
blow so that it brayed vehemently, and at his braying the animals
came together, as numerous as the stars in the sky, so that it was
difficult for me to find room in the glade to stand among them.
There were serpents, and dragons, and divers sorts of animals.
And he looked at them, and bade them go and feed; and they
bowed their heads and did him homage as vassals to their lord."
Roman scholars have often reported that the Gauls, of all the empire's people
were the most receptive to astrology. This pedagogical art and Druidic-science
was always high on the agenda as an important subject matter in the curriculum
of all the pagan schools of southern Gaul.
As Peter Berresford Ellis remarked, it is very surprising considering the classical
sources that there is so little mention of it in the Celtic texts. Pomponius Mela (ca.
A. D. 43) noticed the high regard accorded to the Druids who were held for their
"speculations by the stars." Then there is the mention of Flavius Magnus Aurelius
Cassidorus (ca. A. D. 490-583) concerning the Getae, an eastern Celtic tribe, as
being well learned in moral and natural philosophy and knowing the "course of
the twelve signs of the zodiac, and the planets passing through them and the
whole of astronomy. The Anatolian Greek, Strabo (64 BCE - 24 CE), spoke of a
Celtic Druid named Abaris  in Athens discussing such matters with the
Greeks. At a time when astrology and astronomy were the same science, the
Celts were, according to Cicero, Caesar, Pliny, Tacitus, and other classical
writers, masters of astronomy." This apparent silence can only be explained by
the fact that the Christian censorship of the pagan arts has been very
successful . Peter Berresford Ellis had also noticed thanks to his vast
understanding of details found in the various Celtic corpuses that Celtic
cosmology paralleled Vedic cosmology. He noticed that the ancient Celtic
astrologers used similar systems as those of the Vedic astrologers. This system
was based on the twenty seven lunar mansions called nakshatras in Sanskrit.
His main argument was found in the motif of the circular palace of King Aillil
which was made up of twenty-seven windows and through which he could
observe his "Star Wives", equally twenty-seven. Berresford Ellis also noticed that
Aillil had traits similar to the Hindu Soma. This should not come as a surprise,
since his queen was none other than Medba, the Mead Queen .
As for Taliesin, we have no doubt whatsoever as to his qualities of being to the
Welsh what Ptolemy (ca. 2nd c. CE) was to the Alexandrian Greeks:
"I am learned in the principal sciences, and the reasoning of astrologers
concerning veins and solvents, and the general nature of man" (The Hostile
Confederacy)...I am a wise man of the primal knowledge, I am an experienced
astrologer, Pronounce solutions, I speak to habitual sycophants, I continue to
behold God" (The Hostile Conspiracy).
From Geoffrey of Monmouth, more fragments of ancient Welsh astrology
attributed to Merlin are to be found in the Historia Regum Britanniae (ca. 1134).
A Xth c. text, the Saltair na Rann (Psalter of Quatrains), states that every
educated Irishman knew the names of the signs of the zodiac in order, and the
correct day and month when the sun entered the signs. And according to Cormac
Mac Cuileannain (836-908 CE) in Sanas Chormaic (Cormac Glossary), any well
informed person could throughout the year estimate the hour of the night by the
Moon and stars' positions. The Book of Ballymote (Lebhor Bhaile Mhota), fews
number 21, gives a series of graphic symbols that have no familiar resonance, if
not to Alchemist's symbols. A closer study revealed them to be alternative signs
to the classical ones used by modern astrologers. And indeed, many of the
Ballymote signs do parallel the modern ones, especially the OG/Leo and
ICT/Pisces signs. Many have the particularity of resembling astronomer's tools
such as the gnomon or sundial (LN/Scorpio), while others look like the
instruments they should depict (IND/Scale for Libra). Most interesting are the two
signs that parallel the Hindu Yoni  (womb) and the Linga (phallus) fertility
signs. These are OG/Leo (fawn) and ECH/Virgo (horse).
Detail from the Book of Ballymote.
Etymologies for the Ballymote astrological sigils:
IUL: iùl < eola < eula = science; Iuliuos/-a/-on = merry, punning with
Latin Iulius, a patronymic name, and later on a month name: Iulius
mensis = July (NB: this month name has replaced the former
Quintilis as a token of toadyism towards Iulius Caesar).
OG: < og-os/-a/-on = pure, ogi-os/-a = youth;
ECH: < Equs = livestock, Eqos/Epos = horse, Ecuos < Aecuos =
equal, Igo = water;
IND.: < Ind-/in- = in, indi/endi = there, up to, endon = end, endô v.
to find out.
.LN.: < 'Ln- > alno = beyond, aln-os/-a/-on = the here-after;
.RII.: < 'Rii- < ire < eri - = beyond, on the other side, punning with
Eror= eagle, also Rii-os/-a/-on = free, Rixs = king;
.LU.: < 'Lu- < Elu = much, Eluo = profit, gain, Elua = herd.
FII.: < Uii- < Ueigio v. to weave, Ueaia < Uegeadia = weaver,
theonym, Fairy, Uei, interjection = bad!;
ICT.: < Ict- < Ectus < Pectus = progeny, Ectos = exterior, Ictos/-a/on = crafty, punning with Greek Ikhtus = fish, Latin Ictus = beat,
ARB.: < Aru-a/-on = furrow, Arbara= cereal, Arbor = corn-growing
INSCI: < Insce < Inisg < Enisqiâ/Enispiâ = speech; connoting: insgeith < insciathon = shielded, in shield.
RUIDZÛSG: < Ruidsûsg, from Ruid < Rudios = red + < suig <
sucios = of pigs.
Possible feeling of relationship with Uec-os/-a/-on = mandatory as
sacred> Uecoreta = Sacred-wheel (also Labaron), punning with
Uecoracta = omen, divining.
DIAILM: < Di- = prefix out, of + Alamios = pine, the 'A' ogham, or
Alam-os/-a = herd, from out of 'A', out the herd;
FICT: < Uicta = force, armed force, Uictos/-a/-on = defeated,
beaten, Uecta = cartage, carriage, Uectâ v. to turn, Uectos =
DACT: Dageto = blaze punning perhaps with *Doageto = conduct <
Doago = to lead, maybe coalescing zith Duco = to guide, to tow >
Duct-os/-a/-on = guided, conducted, hinting at Dexs, Dexsiuos =
right> South or even Tecta = property, ownership, arrival, Tecto =
mission, shelter, ownership, Tectos = legitimate possessor, planet
Jupiter, owner, detatched;
GQT/GAXT: < Cacta/Capta = captive, maidservant, Cacto = power,
Cactos/Captos = power;
The first twelve abbreviations are astrological, the four others are astronomical
indications in relation to the wheel of time. All of this reminiscing the concept of
Yogas, or yokes in Vedic astrology. Yoke or Yoga was expressed Iugon or
Uedon in Celtic or Cuing in Old Irish from Comiugon, for conjunction.
We have seen how Fionn's Wheel was in truth the Tree almanac which explains
why Fionn was labelled "the possessor of Wheels". Under its oracular aspect,
that wheel was said Roth Fail in Ireland while the famous expert in this matter
was a Druid nicknamed Mogh Ruith (and on the Brythonic side, the Dasgubell
Rhod) . We also know that the Celtic, Heraklès, Ogmios/Ogma, god of
eloquence, was credited with the invention of the oghamic writing system.
So let us now turn to Ferchertne. Ferchertne's name is tied to the Stich-board
(fews # 18 and the sigla of fews # 21). These had to be the signs used by the
Druids to note the 12 constellations and zodiacal signs. It was said that
Ferchertne was the grandson of Fer Rossa Ruaidh and the great-grandson of
Rudraidhe, son of Partholon . It was said that Rudraidhe was the acclaimed
founder of the royal house of Ulster.
As for Ferchertne, the myths inform us that he was a bard of Cu Roi, king of
Munster . Munster is the Irish province associated with the dead. It is said
that Tech Duinn  lies just off its coast seen from Southern Eire. Tech Duinn
was not far from the Kenmare south-Eastern shore (J. Monard). When
Ferchertne was taken hostage by Cuchulainn, he discovered that Cuchulainn's
victory had been achieved through Cu Roi's wife, Blathnat. Since Blathnat had
fallen under the charm of the Ulster champion, Ferchertne sought to take
vengeance on Cuchulainn to save his king's honour. As Blathnat was standing
unguarded by the cliffs of the Beara Peninsula, Fercherdne seized the
opportunity to take her round the waist and leap with her over the cliffs.
This account, in prosaic terms, relates the astronomers' wrestling with the
difficulties of the dual cycles with the solar path - Sonnocinxs in Old Celtic (Cuchulainn in that allegory) and the path and the lunar path (Blathnat, there might suggest some non-eymological relationship with the Old Celtic noun for the
lunar year: Blidnis). Blathnat, daughter of Mend, gives the signal by emptying
milk into a stream (Milky Way) which ran to the fortress (Grey Hill Fort of lunar
NB: In fact her name contains the same root Blât-/Blôt- = blossom as
Bloddeuwedd of the Mabinogi.
The astronomer must therefore have to tackle with the treacheries of the Moon's
orbit first, but not the astrologer for whom the lunar-solar gearing was not
- To make it clear: In the Celtic civilisation of Antiquity, astronomy and the job of
keeping the calendar under control, were Druidical tasks. The Gaulish Coligny
calendar shows just this, that is, how the Druids in charge of it had solved the
difficult lunar-solar follow-up in the most clever and logical way.
Conversely, astrologers had somehow an easier task to tackle since astrology is
based essentially on the positions of constellations and planets. Subsidarily only,
unless they were using the lunar mansions, might they have paid attention to the
Moon in the assessment making for horoscopic refinements. They were mainly
concerned with the Sonnocinxs (solar path) and the five wandering planets
known in yonder time: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - and the Celts
had names for these of course... albeit several among those ancient names are
not secured enough to be quoted by ourselves nowadays.
- Here is a little recall on the non-matching of the solar and lunar years raising
the lunar-solar problem in terms of calendar-days (1) and orbits (2):
1. The average duration of the zodiacal month is one twelfth of the solar year
which is 30.4368; while the average duration of the lunar month for which one
lunation is 29.5305 days resulting in a discrepancy of 12 x -.9063 = -10.88 days
per year in rounded figures. So for instance, if both durations were 30, there
would have been no problem with 360 days through twelve lunations per year.
2. The orbits of the Earth's revolution around the Sun and of the Moon around the
Earth are not on a straight plan. If they were in that ideal situation, we would
have a Lunar eclipse at every Full Moon and a Solar eclipse at every New Moon.
Furthermore, Earth's orbit is elliptic while the Moon's orbit slightly undulates.
The Bronze Age Nebra disc, Germany. Digital drawing after a photo from the
National Geographics Magazine.
MODELS FOR A CELTIC ZODIAC
Here is Hageneder's outstanding and fairly credible construction for
a Celtic Zodiac.
Friedrich Hageneder's Tree-signs:
I- Chieftain trees and landmarks for Quarterly Festivities
A Ailm (Fir!) on the next day after Winter Solstice
O Onn (Broom!) by Spring Equinox
U Ura (Lime-tree!) by Summer Solstice
E Eadha (Aspen) by Fall Equinox
I Iohu (Yew) on Winter Solstice
II- The thirteen tree signs, each lasting over 4 x 7 = 28 days, start
from Winter Solstice
B Beth (Birch)
H Huath (Hawthorn)
M Muir (Bramble)
L Luis (Service-tree)
D Duir (Oak)
G Gort (Ivy)
N Nion (Ash-tree)
T Tinne (Holly-Oak)
Z Straif (Blackthorn)
F Fearn (Alder)
C Coll (Hazel)
R Ruis (Elder)
S Saille (Willow)
From the Book of Ballymote:
(With its terminology proposed in its likely earlier form through an
EULAS/EOLAS UEDON: Science Yoke (Cancer);
OGIAS UEDON: Pure Yoke, Yoke of Youth (Leo);
EQOUOS UEDON/ AECUON UEDON: Livestock Yoke, Equal Yoke
ENDOUEDON/ENIUEDON: End Yoke, In-Yoke (Libra);
ALNON UEDON: Here-after Yoke (Scorpio);
ERI-UEDON: Beyond the Yoke (Sagittarius);
AURINION UEDON: Golden Yoke (Capricorn);
UEGETON UEDON: Woven Yoke (Aquarius);
ECTON UEDON: Exterior Yoke (Pisces);
ARUAUEDON: Furrow Yoke (Aries);
ENISQIÀS/ENISPIÀS UEDON: Speech Yoke (Taurus);
UECORETAS UEDON: Sacred Wheel Yoke (Gemini);
ALAMIU-DE: Out of 'A' (Pine), for Alba Artuana, the Winter Solstice;
UECTA : Turn, 30o
DUCTOS : Guided, 0o
CACTA/CACTO : Captive, Power, 90o
The Coligny Calendar:
CANTLI PRINNIOS (Libra);
SAMONI PRINNIOS (Scorpio);
DUMANNI PRINNIOS (Sagittarius);
RIURI PRINNIOS (Capricorn);
ANAGANTI PRINNIOS (Aquarius);
OGRONI PRINNIOS (Pisces);
CUTI PRINNIOS (Aries);
GIAMONI PRINNIOS (Taurus);
SIMIUISONI PRINNIOS (Gemini);
EQUI PRINNIOS (Cancer);
ELEMBIUI PRINNIOS (Leo);
EDRINI PRINNIOS (Virgo).
THE ZODIACAL ERAS
The notion of zodiacal "eras", another concept from Druidic/Vedic science, found
in Vedic astrology, if not Druidic, can be traced at least at the start of the Taurean
age if not at the start of Gemini. Each era comprises of 2160 of Plato's years. In
this bucolic procession, first came Cunes, the hounds, Taruos the Bull, then
came Qutios (later Putios), the Ram, followed by Eiscoi, the Fishes or Ogronoi,
the reptiles - and especially, snakes, finally this age; Brauanos/Brannos, the
Raven or Xdonios/Donios, the "Chtonian" - the Man, for a total of 6480 years.
(...but then again the I.E. had not been "differentiated" earlier than 3500 BCE and
Proto-Celts, not earlier than 1400 BCE...at that time, it was therefore the same
for all the Proto-Vedic peoples).
Could thus Aquarius be the "Age of Man" (64 yrs)? Interestingly, the horned
figure on the Gundestrup Cauldron is found holding a large snake, and on the
Cauldron's bottom a large Bull is featured. "The divine bull" and magical cows are
an important motif, and perhaps the Tain Bo Cuailgne is the most famous
demonstration of this.
Taruos Tricaranos, the three-horned bull of Gaul, or Taruos Trigaranos, the bull
with the three cranes is also found in Britain.
We have the surviving Gaulish name Donnotaruos, "Brown Bull" and Donnos's
Boann < Boenda, as punning later on with Bouca uinda = White Cow, is one of
several goddesses connected with cattle. The story of the cow of Buchat
Buasach features an otherworldly bull owned by Morigena who attempts to make
off with it.
In the zodiacal line-up, there is a procession of both domestic and wild animals,
including the human couple. This exemplifies the dual nature of ancient rural
activity; hunting and farming.
This brings us to the Druidical ages or cosmic cycle which should compare to the
four world ages or "divine years" found in the Mahabharata. A cosmic cycle
numbers 12,000 "divine years" which in "human years" adds up to 4,320,000
years. One portion of that cosmic cycle, the fourth, is called the Kali Yuga, which
is exactly one tenth of that sum: 432, 000 years. In the druidical scheme, five
ages = 12,600, that is, 4 x 2520 = 10,080 + 1 intercalary age 10,080 + 2520 =
Sum of "divine year" in a cosmic cycle:
12 x 201 = 241,200; 1200 x 380 = 456,000; 1200 x 360 = 432,000.
Likewise, the Druids counted 30 years cycles (a day as a year) grouped by
twelve yielding 360 years. Twelve zodiacal cycles of 360 years yield one zodiacal
era of 4320 years or one cycle of 95 x 30 years yielding a cosmic age of 2520
years. The difference betwen the two cycles is of 1800 years or 60 x 30 years
NB: Based on the same system, the Brahmans used 60 years cycles instead of
thirty: here was the main difference between vedic and druidical calendars.
The four Ages comprise one Aeon or Kalpa in Greek and Sanskrit or *Aeiiôn in
Celtic. Each Age within an *Aeiiôn consists of a blow of the club hit by Albiiorixs
the Rixtarios, the Regulator.
In each of the vedic Ages, Siva takes a part; in the Krta Age, he is the yogi; in the
Tretà Age, he is known as Kratu, son of Brahmà, a personification of sacrifice; in
the Dvàpara Age, he is the Doomsday Fire; and in the Kali Age, he is
Dharmaketu ("having the Law as his banner"). As for the Hindu and Greek
myths, for each of these Ages, an element, and a race, are given.
The Four Druid Masters, author's drawing.
THE FOUR COSMIC AGES
1. AIUESTU NEMETI - The Age of Nemetos (Sacred): "I am the sound of the
Sea, I am a stag of seven points (Song of Amairgen)": The first Age, Krita Yuga,
in which Four lakes, twelve plains are created. The calendar is set on the first
night of the Uegilia Samoni (Samhain) and tributes are paid to the demons of the
underworld, that are the Uomorioi. This is the Age of Water. The Dawn Stag is
the first cause of manifestation during the creation of this Age, and it corresponds
to the initial wave led by the Horse spirit. The world is ruled by Nemetos or
Uindos (Fionn) in the East. This Age of Truth, the Golden Age, corresponds to
the prime time. In this first wave are brought the four branches of knowledge, the
Uidiia which contain the Four Druid sciences, such as logic, astronomy, natural
sciences and grammar. Element: Water from the Eastern quarters from which
comes Medus (Soma in Sanskrit).
2. AIUESTU UIRI or AIUESTU BOLGII - The Age of Truth or the Age of the
Portly: "I am the Bull of seven fights. I am a battle-waging spear of spoil, I am the
God who fashions fire in the mind. Who but I knows the secrets of the stone
door? Who has seven times sought the Places of Peace? Who, save I knows the
ages of the Moon, the place and time the Sun sets? Who calls the kine from
Tethra's house, who sees them dance in the bright heavens?" (song of
Amairgen): They disembark with the men of Gaul on the day of the Lugi Naissatis
(Lugnasad) and bring the spear or the solar light-ray to the world. This is the Age
of Earth: the Belgioi  carry bags of earth with them in order to raise mounds
to the gods. From the Horse spirit, the spirit of the Day Bull emerges in the
duality of Earth and Water in the West. The Age of Tritos (threesome), for the
Bolgioi. This is the Age of Tethra, the age of Breath, or Age of Tretà. The bag is
also in relation to the winds and tides, and is also known as the wind bag or
Treasure Bag of the Fianna. This Age is marked by Tethra, a Uomorios sea lord,
who much like Manannan was called the "lord of the joyous Otherworld". During
this Age death comes into the world. The laws that govern the world are made
under the rulership of Iuocatus Ercogenos, Talantio's spouse, the high king who
"fights with yew".
3. AIUESTU DANUNOS - The Age of Boons, the Age of Tuatha Dé Dannan .
"Who but I knows the secrets of the stone door ". The people of the Goddess
Danu/Anna descend upon Earth on the day of the Belotenia (Beltane), in time for
the fire celebrations in honour of Belios. Thanks to their magic and science they
triumph over the Belgioi during the first battle of the Great Plain. They bring with
them the four sacred objects which represent the four elements and principles of
power that govern the laws of nature. These are: the Sword of Nodons/Nuada
(Space), for Air which define the Four Winds which blow from caves situated at
the four corners of the Earth; the Stone of Ualis/Fal (Power), from the women of
Peace, the Bena Seduonos or Bena Sedi (Women of the Abode) which stands
for Fire; the Cauldron of Dagos Deuos/Dagda (Plenty), for primordial water and
the Sun's rise over the horizon and Moon's effect on the seas; the Spear of
Lugus/Lugh (Manifestation) for Earth defining the Sun's path from East to West.
This Fire element is defined by the coupling of Horses and Cattle each
representing an aspect of opposing pairs of the Void and the Plenty of Creation
and Destruction. Its position is to the fiery South. "I am a Hawk on a cliff", surely
of a solar fiery nature, for "I am a teardrop of the sun". Duality is therefore the key
word. An easy pun can be made from Duobis (double), Dumnos (underworld),
and Dubis (dark) This is the Vedic Age of the doomsday fire, the Age of Dvàpara.
Element: Air, wind, blowing from the North-western quarter under the rulership of
Circios (Vàyu in Sanskrit), lord of the winds.
4. AIUESTU MILETONOS - The Age of Mileto>Mile (Havoc) "I am a boar of
boldness": this last and fourth Age is the same as the Age of Kali, the present
Age which is the worst of the four Ages. This present race also comes about on
the advent of the Belotenia celebrations. This Age is set by the Triune Goddess
of Fate, Destiny, and Death also known as the three mothers (Treis Matrai), the
three Plains (Magosiai >Macha) or the three Crones (Caliacas). The poet of
sorrows Amarogenos> Amergen (Born from Sorrow), secures peace for the
inhabitants of the Earth Plain by reaching an agreement with the three tutelary
goddesses. People are subjected to death and are sent to the House of
Donn . The Tuatha Dé Danann return to their otherworldly abodes. This
element (Air), in its moving nature is represented by Lord Dis father of Death, as
breath (Esus), and as father to the present race. Because of this, it is situated in
the North. The Vedas maintain that in this Age the acts of evil men will be
destroyed by an avatar of Visnu, Kalkin (Iuocatuos > Eochaidh), riding to raze the
wicked cities of the plain polluted by foreign ways. In the end personal and
collective dharma will be restored thus permitting the return of the Golden Age.
 Regarding a possible connection between the Semitic name Assur and the
aryanic noun Asuras, for many specialists it is very difficult to admit more than a
mere paronymy since the known chronology objects against such a borrowing by
the Semitic Assyrian from Vedic, or Pre-Vedic terminology.
ca -2300 to -2053 Occupation by the Gutyum (or Gutti). Question: were they
ca -2200 First epigraphic mention of Assur as a city-state.
-1742 to -1153 Occupation by the Kassi, kntm I.E.
ca -1700 to 1300 Mitanni kingdom created by the Hurri, "satem" I.E. = Aryas in
the western neighbourhood of Assyria.
To support the assumption Assur||Asuras there are just two possibilities needing
validation by competent scholars such as orientalists (and/or) indianists.
a. Yes provided that they made sure that the Gutyum/Gutti were aryanic in
b. Yes provided that it were proven that 'Assur' was borrowed from the Sumerian
language and that 'Asuras' belonged to the still unknown language of the
'Harappian' pre-aryanic inhabitants of the Hindus valley (and perhaps akin to the
Dravidians) and would have been borrowed there by an Aryan presence. This
unlikely hypothesis would have as only current support the convergences
between Sumerian and Harappian civilisations (Joseph Monard (2001)
commenting : Frawley, David, comment dated April 25, 2000. « Text
 Just < Iustus in Latin and Auentos in Celtic. « Text
 Dharma, ritual law or application, dedma\derma in Celtic. « Text
 Ariobindus, of noble birth in Celtic. « Text
 Varenne, Jean, Zarathustra et la tradition mazdéenne, p. 23-35. « Text
 The ritual nectar, Soma in Sanskrit, Haoma in Avestic, Ambrosia in Greek
and Medus in Celtic. « Text
 Flamens and Brahmans, Oblation Carriers < flamenes in Latin, brahmana in
Sanskrit, both from I.E. roots *blagmena or *beromena for the Proto-Celts. « Text
 Tocharian, from Greek Tokharoi (< Tacaros = ² Chiefly² ), were most likely
Proto-Celts of Cimmerian stock as shown by the Old Chinese name Xiemmer.
The Iranian speaking Scyths called themselves Skolots, and referred to as the
Sakas in the Vedas. « Text
 Momies Gauloises, in La Recherche, #314, Novembre 1998. « Text
 Charles F. Herberger in The Role of the Sacred Cut in the Geometry of
Stonehenge, has demonstrated how the Sacred Cut as determined in the Canon
of Polykeitos and by Pythagorean geometry was used to map out sacred space.
He successfully demonstrated how the ancients used geometric projections to
build temples. Quoting from Nigel Pennick's Games of the Gods, who found proof
of this in an ancient Indian text called Manasara Shilpa Shastra. The text, he
says, "explains the laws of sacred geometry. This involved geometrical
techniques for laying out a basic square which is then sub-divided into a sacred
grid. Temples in ancient India were oriented to the cardinal directions by
geometrical manipulations of a knotted rope". Neara Journal, vol. xxiix, no 3 & 4,
1995. « Text
 Hotar (Sanskrit), Zaotar (Avestic), or Gutuater (Celtic), which stands for
"praise agent". « Text
 Varenne, Jean, Zarathushtra, p. 30. « Text
 The Tibetan Book Of The Dead. The Cosmography, p. 65. « Text
 Frawley, David. Letter dated August 29, 1998. « Text
 Erichton can also be punning with Erech; the usual spelling for Uruk, the
Sumerian city. « Text
 The Rig Veda, selected, translated and annotated by Wendy Doniger
O'Flaherty, 1.160 Vs 1-5, p. 203. « Text
 Septemtrio in Celtic, and Saptarshis in Sanskrit. In Latin, Septentrio, the
plural Septem Triones stood for both Ursa Major and Ursa Minor together. In fact,
Septendrio applied rather to Ursa Minor, as its Celtic parallel Sextensdirio. To
avoid confusions, the Latins wrote either Septemtrio Maior or Septentrio Minor. «
 Arcturus, from Arktos Oura = "bear's tail". « Text
 The Seven Sisters were called Amba, Doula, Nitatoui, Abrayanti,
Maghayanti, Varshayanti and Choupunika in Sanskrit. « Text
 Cailleach Beara, from Cailiaca Berias = "hag of the plain". Cailiaca =
"shrewish" (hag) + Beria = (rather barren) "plain". Cailléach Beinne Bhric, from
Cailiaca Bennia Brica is the "Hag of the Mountain". Cailléach Bolus, for Cailiaca
Bolussas = "Hag of the Sloe" while Cailléach Corca Duibne for Cailiaca Crocnos
Dubnis = "Hag of the Red Abyss" which puns with Dunia for "lady". « Text
 Manava, sons of Manu. « Text
 Maines in Irish, from Manioi = 'boys'. « Text
 From the root Dexsiutera, "the righteous". « Text
 From root Setantios, "the walker" alias Cuchulainn, root: Cu Culantios =
"Culan's dog". « Text
 The Green Man, called Yspadadden Penkawr in Welsh, from root
Spadonios Pennocauaros. « Text
 Tester, Jim, A History of Western Astrology, p. 161. « Text
 Abaris < ABAris = 'the water', or ABARE-os/-a/-on, ABARos/-a, adj. =
'quibbling', ABARon cn = 'matter'. « Text
 Berresford Ellis, P., Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, (Astrology) p. 35. « Text
 Berresford Ellis, Peter. Our Druid Cousins, Meet the brahmins of ancient
Europe, the high caste of Celtic society.
in Hinduism Today, February 2000. « Text
 Called Uamba (Yoni) and Calgos (linga) in Celtic. « Text
 From root Tasgopeilas reta, "performing thought wheel". Other names for it
are Labaron, Tarabara and Uecoreta. « Text
 The etymology of the name hints at a pun on a Celtic name with a
Romanised rendering of a Greek/Aramaic name Bartholomaeus for "son of
Ptolemy", that is, from Aramaic Bar for "son" and Greek Ptolemaios. Ptolemy
(2nd century CE), a legendary astronomer, was with Hipparchus one of the
greatest Greek astronomers. His true Celtic name was something like Partolos
(War Party) punning with Prinniacos (Astrologer) Prinnionos (Astrology One) or
Abaris maybe. « Text
 From Mumhan, early forms: Mumu, Muma. « Text
 From Tegos Donni, ² the House of Donn² , the gathering place of the
deceased. « Text
 the Bolgos Uiroi or Bolgouiroi > Fir Bolg (the portly men), an alternate name
for the Belgioi. Fir Gallion, from Fir Gaileôin, Uiroi, ² men² + Galloi (Gauls), and
the Dumnonoi or Dumnouiroi > Fir Domnans (the Worldly). « Text
 The Toutai Deuas Danunas, also Aes Danunas, the Age of the Dananns
(Danavas). « Text
 Hinting at a metaphysical concept: Duora = "door", for Duora Anamonos,
"the doors of the souls". Also puns with Douocanos = "prophecy" and
Dexouiotenia = "southern fire" etc., etc. « Text
 From Donnos, "the Dark one", and Lord of the Dead. « Text
 Berossos: Greek writing priest living in Persian Babylon in 280 BCE. Quoted
From Joseph Campbell in Oriental Mythology, p. 119 « Text
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flourished shortly before 800 AD. MS B II 1.
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Michel-Gerald Boutet: DRUUIDICA
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