Romanticism (1) .pdf
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The Historical Context
• It took place between 1765 to 1783 during which the 13th
colonies rejected the British rules and they found the United
States of America.
Colonists protest against Great Britain:the most important one
was Boston Tea Party(1773) where patriots destroyed a
consignment of taxed tea from Parliament and favored East
On 14th of July the Continental Congress declared the colonies
free and independent states.
This declaration was signed before fighting.
The revolution ended in 1873 with the treaty of Versailles
where Britain recognized the independence of American
colonies and George Washington was declared the 1st
president of USA and New York the new capital
• The French Revolution began on 4th of july of 1789 when french
yook control of Bastille that was a political prison
some months later the declaration of the rights of man and citizen
was signed the feudalism and the monarchy was abolished and then
there was the period of Jacobinism with the leader Robespierre .
This period is also called terror because his political enemy were
• English writers and poets supported the revolution but it was
followed by Napoleon's ascent
• In 1793 France declared war to Great Britain and they decided to
fight and sea.
• Nelson defeated Napoleon but he took control of almost all Europe
He was defeated at Waterloo in 1815
The French Revolution
• Last decades of 18 century
• Increase of population and a demand for more pots and
• New technologies inventions and sources of power. the
first was water than iron coke and steam.
• Transport improvements, new waterways
• Fast road travel, cheap transport
• Agrarian revolution and enclosures of open fields
• improvementes in breeding of cattle and in farming
• Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic
period) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual
movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the
18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the
approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
• Before this arc of time we have a protoromantic period.
• Romanticism was characterized by the revaluation of the
emotion versus Reason which characterized the
The fight bewteen
Emotion and Reason
• The Romanticism contained element of nostalgia,
emotionalism, introspection and Imagination.
• There was a growing interest in humble and everyday
• The rediscovery of the art and culture.
The Main Features
• Nature came to be felt as a real living being instead of
something that could be ruled by reason(Enlightenment’s
• Intellectuals resume Spinoza and Bruno’s theories.
• The revaluation of Rousseau foment the cult of exotic
places, that were far away from the civilization. An exotic
country was not only a landscape, but also something
distant from social obligations.
Lord Byron (1788-1824) on shore of
Hellenic sea, by Giacomo Trecourt
Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer
above the Sea of Fog, 1818
• A new taste for the desolate and the love of ruins
• Imagination combined with these stark images led to the
creation of the horror fiction
• Mary Shelley and Edgar Allan Poe were the masters of
this kind of fiction
• The movement was rooted in the German Sturm und
Drang (literally 'storm and drive’) movement, which
preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the
Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French
Revolution were also proximate factors.
• Johann Wolfgang (von) Goethe was the main figure of
The Sturm und Drang
• The Sublime is the feeling between fear and attraction to
a physical or conceptual phenomenon
• Immanuel Kant was the first to theorize this feeling.
• We have two kind of sublime: The first one linked to a
natural event (Like a storm) and the second one linked to
a conceptual (Like the infinity for greeks)
• William Blake was born in London in 1757 and he died
there in 1827. His origins were humble and he remained
poor all his life.
• His poetry is regarded as early Romantic because he
rejected neoclassical literary style and themes. He
affirmed the importance of imagination over reason
and believed that ideal forms should be created not
from observations of nature but from inner vision.
• When he was child his father sent him to a drawing school.
• He began to draw the monuments in the old churches of
London from which derived his love of the Gothic style.
• Later he studied at the Royal Academy of Art.
• Blake broke with the conventions to respect perspectives and
proportions and the standards of realistic representation and
created a new kind of art which emphasised the power of the
imagination. He created his own method for making prints that
combine picture and poetic text called "illuminated
printing". Much of Blake’s painting dealt with religious
Blake the artist
"Newton" is a demonstration of his
opposition to the "single view" of Naturalism:
the great philosopher and scientist is alone in
the deep ocean, his eyes (only one of which is
visible) fixed on compasses with which draws
on a roll. It almost seems to be one with the
rock on which it sits. (1795)
• Blake was concerned with the political and social
problems of his time.
• He supported the abolition of slavery and asserted the
egalitarian principles of French Revolution.
• He sympathised with the victims of industrial society and
condemned the injustices consequent of the Industrial