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ArsialPP4studycase .pdf



Nome del file originale: ArsialPP4studycase.pdf
Titolo: Terracina Integrated Pathways
Autore: Stefano Carrano - ARSIAL

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Pilot project 4. Terracina integrated
pathways

Projet Interreg IIIB Medocc
n° 2005-05-2.1-I-137
March 2008

Content

Foreword

1

Methodological approach

4

Terracina integrated pathways case study

5

Background

5

Target groups and purposes

9

Compound analysis

16

Collection

16

Analysis

60

Processing

72

Resources

80

Technical resources

80

Human resources

82

Costs and benefits

86

General considerations

86

Route realisation cost evaluation

87

Route management cost evaluation

90

Bibliography

91

Acknowledgements

96

1st attachment: General overview on Route Tourism

97

Routes instances

102

Route planning

127

Target planning

127

Planning elements

129

Planning technical aids

139

2nd attachment – Planning tables

143

Foreword

Tourism is a central factor playing a key role in the frame of the link town-country, as already
illustrated into the “Climate monitoring & suburban areas development” study of this series (p.
26). This because tourism could be described in the narrowest sense as a periodical
migratory wave of citizens coming to and from the urban centres for various motivations and
because of the importance of the economy it generates.
The concept of tourism in a broad way is linked to the concept of travelling for purposes
different than the basic surviving, territorial conquest or trading motivations. Those could be
sought in the intellectual horizon and could be traced back in the history of humanity from the
initiation travels of primitive populations, the religious travels testified on the pre-classic age
to visit temples and oracles, or the great pilgrimage travel of the medieval age. The pureleisure travelling holidays are instead testified by many Roman writers, and poets and by the
archaeological ruins of classic villas and second houses of the late empire.
The word tourism itself derives from “Le Grand Tour”, the educational travel that starting from
the second half of the XVIII century the noble and intellectual youth of England were
supposed to achieve into the cultural centres of the continent to perform and refine their
instruction.
Nowadays this educational content has been softened or quite erased and more than a
tourist considers its priority only in terms of relax or leisure.

This cultural loss in a substantial way is not quite effective. It is in fact a commonplace to
define the travel as an enrichment of personality: wandering, seeing other places, other ways
of life, other cultures is a cultural improvement itself, that sets in motion reflection and ideas,
apart from the benefit coming from physical motion.

This passive induction to acculturation could be properly stimulated and deepened thanks to
a wise planning and design of the travel route itself, that become in this manner functional to
other and higher issues than the pure leisure (from the traveller point of view) or the
economic gain (from the tourist operator point of view).

One of the issues now at stake is the sustainability of tourism, this operates on the
environment on a double way: tourism is attracted by high value, unspoiled, environments
and at the same time tourism pollution has a great impact on the environment itself. Apart
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from architectonic and landscape spoiling of many places, tourism requests many polluting
transport devices and great water resources.

Therefore new kinds of tourism more

environmental friendly as cycle tourism and walking tourism are taking now place.

It is interesting to note that since from the beginning tourists gave great value to the route
notion. Le Grand Tour was carefully planned and had its compulsory stages in important
historical cities like Paris, the German Universities, Rome, Naples, etc.. In the cities
themselves there were peculiar fashionable monuments, landscapes or locals to be visited
and the traveller came back well acquainted with the foreign culture, customs and traditions,
thanks to a carefully planned visiting schedule that involved physical, cultural, landscape and
historical features.

Today the definition

of “tourist route” accepted by the scientific community refers to an

“initiative to bring together a variety of activities and attractions under a unified theme and
thus stimulate entrepreneurial opportunity through the development of ancillary products and
services” (Greffe,1994). Compared to the ancient concept of tourism that highlighted culture
and education, the modern tourism value is referred mainly to economy and economic
development.

The terminology used to describe the “tourism route” notion often differs in different countries
of the world utilising terms as “themed routes”, “trails”, “scenic by-ways”, “drive tourism” and
so on. Overall, the route is considered to be an effective method of tourism distribution
especially of tourists travelling by road (driving, hiking, cycling etc) within a given
geographical area. The essential concept of route tourism is simple, namely that of the linking
together a series of tourism attractions in order to promote local tourism by encouraging
visitors to travel from one location to another. The kind of attraction selected gives the theme
of the route (such as folklore, working lives, food and drink routes, religious routes, etc…)

The significance of the travel has acquired over the recent years new values. In the 80ies
and 90ies of the last century a trail was general accomplished for leisure, wellness and sport
purposes. Than added values connected to the business and marketing sphere of influence
were introduced and the itinerary with the time changed from a physical traced route in the
environment into an ideal path of discovery (and purchasing) among taste, enjoyment and
feeling sensations, to be travelled with different modalities (very often by private car) and
sometimes even no more linked to an exactly traced route.

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The itinerary adopted to accomplish this travel or visit, becomes the strategic central element
for the development of tourist offers in the frame of the territorial management and planning
by the local administrators. It is so important that it is involved into the process of local
governance of the territory and is linked with many aspects of economy, nature protection,
culture, human and environmental heritage, etc…
For instance, actually one of the priority actions for the local administrators of coast tourist
towns it to mitigate the environmental damages due to excessive crowding on the seaside,
trying to divert part of the tourist demand on hinterland locations. In the same way small
historical towns of Central Italy are trying to reroute masses of tourists to relevant points of
attractiveness of the surrounding countryside. In both these instances wise route planning
could be seen as a soft but effective instrument to move away and alleviate the weight of
tourism from overloaded nodes, but for this purpose it has to cope with a multi-thematic
scenario.

Therefore in this study the GreenLink priority axis “Sport, leisure and tourist activities” will be
merged and connected with the axes already focused in the three previous projects that
were:
1. “Technologic infrastructures and productive activities”;
2. “Renewable energies and biodiversity”;
3. “Educational, cultural and artistic activities”.

This is firstly deserved by the GreenLink general viewpoint of rational planning integration
and then because the realisation of tourist routes implies the gathering of centres of
attractiveness that are linked intimately with the three foresaid themes as it will be illustrated
in the following chapters.

Panoramic view of Pontine Plain from Monte Circeo, detailing the main tourism features of the area

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Methodological approach
Following the methodological scheme of the previous works, this fourth ARSIAL activity
simulation for GreenLink project is structured in two parts:
1. a general overview about the tourism route realisation concept illustrating definitions,
state of the art, best practices, planning methodology;
2. an instance of advanced planning in this frame.
For this last aspect it will be take as instance the area of Terracina, a well known seaside
place of South Latium, were the conjunction of natural, cultural and historical values could
play an interesting role for the enhancement of tourism leisure activities.
At the end an evaluation of cost & benefits will try to take into account the economic effort
and the advantages linked to the pathways realisation. To this regard it should be stressed
that economic benefits are difficult to be accounted for, because they concern the leisure
sphere and the un-monetary advantages of public actions that could be esteemed in term of
social consensus and community welfare.

Due to the large dimension of the work in its whole, this was divided into three different parts
to the purpose of a easier publishing on the web: 1) the case study as the main component;
2) the general overview as a first detached attachment; 3) the planning tables as a second
detached attachment.

1st attachment

Route Tourism

General
overview
on route
tourism

Route instances

Target planning
Planning elements

Route planning

Planning aids
Collection

Background

Terracina
case study

Analysis

Target group & purposes
Compound analysis
Resources

Processing
Technical res.
Human res.
General considerations

Costs &
benefits

2nd attachment
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Route realisation cost evaluation
Route management cost
evaluation

Planning
tables

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Terracina integrated pathways case study

Background
It is important to stress out that the planning process of this study has not been originated by
a primary purpose linked to economic development, as in case of so many tourist route plans,
but in the perspective of GreenLink frame, it was related to a rational and wise development
of

the

“town-country”

connection,

with

particular

attention

to

sustainability

and

cultural/educational issues.
For this reason the road map adopted to navigate through the different stages of the
accomplishment will start from a summarised consideration of the historical and
environmental background of the area of Terracina.

Historical background
The history of Terracina is linked firstly to the Roman empire, when it was known as a
religious and defensive centre linked to the main routes of trade of land and sea. Here, in the
first century B.C. one of the greatest monumental centres of the Romans was restructured
and widened: the Temple of Jupiter Anxur. The first agriculture land reform operated in the
area could be dated to the 329 B.C. or in the following epochs, when all the locality actually
named “la Valle” was reclaimed for 450 hectares extension and distributed to the army colons
thus becoming one of the first agriculture productivity centre in the area (Selvaggi, 1999). In
the first medieval age too Terracina was one of the main node of the religious and diplomatic
exchanges going through the ancient road (the via Appia), connecting the remains of the
West to the East Roman Empire. In the later medieval age this role was played among the
two Christianity centres of Rome and Byzantium and the Bishop headquarter of Terracina
acquired growing and permanent temporal power on all the area of Pontine Plain and of the
hinterland. In later times the localisation of the town on the border between the Church State
and the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies strengthened its administrative and
defensive values. On 1500-1600 the tower coastal defensive system was settled against the
Saracens with the construction of 10 towers in the territory. In the Illuminist age Terracina
was the technical centre of the first attempts (after the Romans) to drain part of the Pontine
marshes, operated mainly by Pope Pio VI. In later times the brigandage phenomenon
acquired a peculiar strength that found ailment thanks to the environmental, social and
diplomatic features of the border line between the two states. In this time begun the
European “Grand tour” travel fashion and Terracina was one of the obliged stops of the
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journey of many travellers to the south (Naples and Sicily) as for Montesquieu and Christian
Andersen, from whom were left artistic descriptions of the place and of the picturesque
surroundings (Terrapontina, 2007). In the period after the Italian Unification, Terracina begun
to play again a role of technical and administrative headquarter for the drainage of the
marshes and the swamps of the plain. This time a massive land reform and soil reclamation
was carried out by different national governments with particular commitment in the Fascism
Era1.

Environmental background
As concerning to the environment, the town of Terracina lies at the end of the Pontine Plain,
about 40 km long, 18 km width, south of Rome, closed by the mountains of the Ausoni Range
on the North and by the sea at East and South, and the municipality extends both on plain
and hillside territories bordering the sea for about one third of its extension. The 36% of its
territory is covered by nature protected areas and a detailed analysis of its geographical,
climatic and economic situation was already accomplished into the frame of GreenLink
project2.
All the plain area was interested by the Land reform massive landscape and environmental
changes. Only few places were spared and are now protected areas. Notwithstanding the
land reclamation destroyed 21.000 hectares of the great primary coastal forest (it remains
only 3.260 hectares of the ancient “Selva di Terracina” forest thanks to the nature reserve
National Park of Circeo), this was however the best way to ensure environment conservation
and social development with a delicate balance among natural and hydraulic elements and
resources exploitation of the area thanks to agriculture productivity.
Actually the land reclamation system is in peril. From the year 60ies, due to the strong
anthropic pressure, the concerned territories were subjected to great risks of soil
desertification and vegetation impoverishment. Cultural identity and traditional values are in
danger too, with a loss of the awareness of the importance of both environmental and land
reform achievements among the young generations.
As for the hinterland mountain area, this was historically considered by the inhabitants as one
of the three agricultural territorial exploitation sources in a diversified approach of the global
territory management. It has been considered too as an historic refuge area during invasions
and fighting events and as a place of wilderness and liberty during the brigandage period.
The mountain area was often considered not as an obstacle but as a protected travelling
corridor with the Apennines Region, the traditional reservoir of human, technical and trade
1

For more details on the Land Reform and Soil Reclamation of Pontine Plain see on pages 38-42 of the pilot
project n° 3 study: “Virtual museum & environment” in the ARSIAL GreenLink framework.
2
See on pages 47-51 of the pilot project study n° 2: “Climate monitoring and suburban areas development”
for the geographical situation. On pages 59-61 of the same study could be found a characterisation of the
local climate and on pages 61-63 an outline of the main industries.
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resources for Terracina, both for the inhabitants as for the seasonally migrating shepherds
and peasants, as for the travellers, when the Via Appia was impassable.
For these reasons the environment of the area should be enhanced as an heritage to be
protected and handed over to future generations with at last three different levels of concern
(cultural and natural): the primeval plain environment (protected areas); the agriculture land
reform and reclamation heritage; the hilly hinterland trading and herding area.

The environmental background of Pontine Plain Southern area
(on the map below are highlighted the nature protected areas)
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It is important now to stress that just because of these historical and environmental grounds
Terracina area could not be considered independently from the surrounding environment of
the Pontine Plain and the Ausoni range mountains. The historical administrative links and the
environmental continuity of the area should be taken in consideration for every study
concerning the utilisation and the productive panning of the territory. This principle is
reinforced by the fact that in a tourist enhancement approach the connexions of Terracina
with the nearby areas are important too.

The ideal triangle built on the nodes of tourism attractiveness
could embody the representativity area for the selected territory

In fact, after a first rough observation of the territory from a tourist’s point of view, two main
reflections stand out:
1. in the territory there is already a great development of tourist facilities and tourist
attraction complexes of different themes and typologies that have to be carefully
considered;
2. Terracina territory lies on one of the summits of an ideal triangle, about 30 km sided,
whose other two angles are represented by the Circeo National Park (one of the five
historical Italian nature parks) and the Fossanova ancient pilgrimage abbey (that has
been recently designed as one of the three “Great Cultural Attractors” of the Latium
region).

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Therefore, to consider all this territory as a whole is imperative in the consideration of a global
approach to the territory for a sustainable and integrated development of tourism routes.

Target groups and purposes
The tourism groups targeted will be selected thanks to a preliminary analysis of the tourism
characteristics of the area. The detailed local analysis of this sector has been already
achieved in a previous study of the GreenLink frame3. In this moment its important only to
mention that from that survey emerged that the main critical points are:
-

the marginal or careless utilisation of the tourism resource in the local political
development strategies;

-

the lack of a well structured marketing action and communication plan;

-

the scarceness of organisation services;

-

the ill-advised local price policy, inducing people to concentrate holidays into the weekends or in critical periods and to shorten the permanence period;

-

the lack of coordination into the initiatives promoted by the different managing
authorities of the environmental sector.

Analysis of present tourism typologies in the project area
The data gathered from the APT Latina source proved in the Latina province, for Italian
tourists, on 2005 a mean time of permanence of 3.6 days in hotel and of 8.1 day in extrahotel accommodation. The foreigners spent instead 5.3 days in hotel and 7.1 in extra hotel
accommodations (APT Latina, 2006). Total numbers of arrivals for the whole province on
2005 were of 458,765 Italians and 78.514 foreigners (coming moistly from Germany, USA,
UK, Russia, Sweden, France). It can be roughly assumed that about one third of the figures
above mentioned spent their holidays into the area of interest of this project (before defined
on page 8). Its interesting to note that the main fluxes of foreigners (exempting the USA
arrivals, linked mainly to the presence of the NATO army base of Gaeta) come from northern
countries with cold-temperate climates.
As concerning Italian tourists they come mainly from Rome and Naples, but on summer there
is a great affluence of only one-day permaining Italian tourists, usually inhabitants of the
territory or of the surroundings,

that escapes from the figures, but could be roughly

esteemed in 50,000 people in the summer peak, travelling to-and from the coast (usually
with their own car) with relevant carbon pollution production.
3

See on pages 51-57 of the previous mentioned pilot project study n° 2: “Climate monitoring and suburban
areas development”.
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The tourist season goes from June to September with the focus on July and August, on the
other seasons of the year the tourism is not exploited and most of the tourist
accommodations are closed.
The present tourism attractiveness’ typologies implied in the area of the project are:
-

seaside and beach oriented features, situated all along the costs and attended from
June to September by Italian and foreigners of undifferentiated typologies. The quality
of these tourist fluxes varies from the excellence tourism with 4 stars accommodation
near the Monte Circeo area (San Felice, Sabaudia) to the day-to-day tourists that do not
stay for the night but utilise only the beach for leisure and picnic and go back to home
on the evening;

-

cultural and religious centres,

focused by the historical centres of Terracina, San

Felice, Fossanova (Sabaudia too, for its peculiar modernist architecture) and by the
local museums of archaeology, land reclamation and the II World War (Piana delle
Orme museum). Fossanova Abbey is a centre of cultural and religious tourism
(pilgrimages) by Italians and by visiting groups of students (mainly in the summer and
on December, but in spring too). A secondary source of attractiveness is focused on
national and international meetings and workshops on business character, that are held
all over the year in the main hotel accommodation structures;
-

environmental attractiveness centres, represented almost exclusively by the Circeo
National Park with the involvement of individual tourist visiting family groups on summer
and less on spring and autumn. Specially during the spring there is a great affluence of
visiting guided tours of schools (30.000 visitors) coming from many parts of the region.
A secondary attractiveness centre, could be considered the Centro Studi “Guido Nardi”
of Pontemaggiore that is a documentation centre for guided visits on the land
reclamation under the patronage of the Consorzio di Bonifica dell’Agro Pontino. A very
particular “niche’s” attractiveness, is represented by the distinctive geological formations
of Campo Soriano Reserve that involves very small international groups of speleologists
all the year round;

-

a good source of attractiveness is due to the international school of row and canoe of
Sabaudia, that involves sportsmen coming from all over the world and especially on the
winter season, to train themselves on the coastal lake. Their number could be
esteemed around 12,000 presences/year; this too could be considered as a niche’s
tourism flux because of its special vocation.

The figures of the main attractiveness’ node visitors were provided by each node managing
authority and are shown in the following table.

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Attractiveness of the main tourist nodes: n° of visitors (figures 2007)
Abbazia di
Circolo
Centro Studi
Circeo
Natural
Fossanova Canottieri
Guido Nardi
National Park Monument
season
Sabaudia
Pontemaggiore
Campo
Soriano
spring
35000
400
1000
10600
200
summer
45000
400
500
14709
autumn
15000
200
100
8400
winter
6000
200
1900
500
total 140109
101000
1200
1600
35609
700
elaboration based on figures provided by the single istitutions

From these considerations, comes into sight that the actual only relevant attractiveness node
of the territory is represented by the seaside targeted to undifferentiated typologies of tourists
during the summer with a much smaller secondary flux represented by visiting groups of
schools or pilgrims that are engaged on guided tours on spring and autumn.

The intensity of attractiveness for the various tourist recreation typologies varies during the year

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1
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1

Climate relevance on the territory
The problem of climate change into the planning activity upon a territorial perspective has
been yet thoroughly examined in a previous study of the GreenLink frame.4 In that context
were already shown data concerning the local area vulnerability to climate change. It is here
only necessary to remind that the plain coastal areas are graved by high risks of sea
intrusion, flooding events and hydro-geological disasters. Saltiness increase of the soil due to
migrations of underground salt front is yet a problem to be coped with and the coastal erosion
too. The impact on the economical development of the area has not been calculated, but
surely is to be assumed that in the next 20-50 years there will be an increasing variation on
the attractiveness degree of the seaside and of its availability for tourist leisure purposes both
on the time (seasonality) and in the space (extension of the sandy beaches).

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

Compared T.max °C average 1960-1990 (Terracina: 1980-2000)
Berlin
Brussels Helsinki
London
Paris
Warsaw
2
6
-3
7
6
6
3
6
-3
8
8
7
8
9
1
9
11
15
13
13
6
13
15
22
18
17
14
17
18
27
21
19
19
20
22
30
23
22
21
22
24
31
22
22
19
21
24
30
19
19
14
18
21
26
13
14
9
14
16
20
6
9
4
9
10
12
3
7
0
8
17
8

Terracina
13
15
16
19
23
27
30
30
27
23
18
15

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

Compared T.min °C average 1960-1990 (Terracina: 1980-2000)
Berlin
Brussels Helsinki
London
Paris
Warsaw
-3
1
-9
2
2
-17
-3
1
-9
2
3
-10
0
3
5
3
5
-13
3
4
0
4
7
-3
8
8
6
8
10
1
11
11
11
11
13
5
13
13
14
13
15
7
12
13
13
12
15
6
9
11
8
10
13
1
5
8
4
7
9
-7
1
4
-1
4
5
-3
2
2
-6
3
3
-13

Terracina
6
7
8
11
14
18
21
22
18
15
11
8

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

4

Compared total precipitation average 1960-1990 (Terracina: 1980-2000)
Berlin
Brussels Helsinki
London
Paris
Warsaw Terracina
43
65
41
59
46
28
63
34
54
32
37
39
25
77
49
58
35
47
41
31
74
49
54
37
47
45
37
73
53
61
31
52
56
50
42
72
67
41
48
56
65
22
58
78
60
46
57
68
14
60
73
74
51
55
70
28
46
65
73
58
53
47
71
39
72
71
60
56
40
153
46
71
57
57
54
37
146
51
71
69
60
49
35
109
data source for European cities: Eurometeo, 2008
data source for Terracina: Ufficio Idrografico e Mareografico di Roma

See ARSIAL GreenLink pilot project n° 2 “Climate monitoring and suburban areas development”.
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As for the actual climate characterisation of the area, this has been studied into the previous
cited study too5. In this place could be interesting to compare the climate indices of different
North- and East-European cities (from where come the main foreigner’s tourist fluxes) with
the Terracina own index. There is thus evidence that the climate indices of the minimum and
particularly the maximum temperatures of the winter season of Terracina correspond to the
spring mean temperatures of the main Northern European cities, as to say: for a North
European citizen that lives in Terracina there is no winter season!

Conclusions
There is now enough evidence to sum up some principles to be utilised as guidelines:
-

in the concerned area there is an outburst of tourist demand only during the summer with
estimated figures coming up to 150,000-200,000 arrivals concentrated specially on JulyAugust and attracted by the seaside recreational typology; to this figures should be added
the tourist day to day impact of the local and neighbouring inhabitants that go to the
seaside only for a day, estimable in another 50,000 people in the peak of the
summertime;

-

there is a secondary tourist demand connected to cultural and environmental recreational
values linked mainly to tourist guided tours in spring and autumn;

-

the concentration of tourism demand on the summer season creates huge problems of
quality of the services offered, of traffic and of pollution, originated by the impact of at last
200,000 people on a territory inhabited by only 61,080 residents6;

-

in a sustainability perspective is mandatory to divert at least a portion of the summer
seaside tourist flux to other destinations in the hinterland and to redistribute the arrivals
during the different seasons, enhancing the offer of the existent secondary tourist
demand;

-

this last principle collides too with the precautionary purposes (due to the absolute lack of
studies and forecasts concerning the effects of the climate change on the territory) of
diverting the seaside tourism on other directions for adaptation to envisaged climate
change effects;

-

the targeting of groups in a strategy of valorisation of the territory for leisure, sport and
tourist attractiveness should interest the local inhabitants too, that are implied in the
general summer seaside leisure quest for a relevant amount of people.

5

See ARSIAL GreenLink pilot project n° 2 “Climate monitoring and suburban areas development” on pages
58-61.
6
This figure relates to the residential population of the coastal municipalities of Terracina, San Felice and
Sabaudia, data source: Istat 2001.
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Target groups
Therefore the groups of tourist targeted by the present proposal could be defined as:
-

the local inhabitants that should be made aware of the possibility of a better quality of
life thanks to education to cultural (historical heritage), and natural values (biodiversity)
of their own territory;

-

tourists coming from out, partitioned as
ƒ

Italians, targeted to specific leisure fruition routes tailored on the average duration
of their permanence;

ƒ

foreigners, targeted to a different seasonality of permanence thanks to the climatic
quality of the territory, compared to their places of origin.

Purposes
From the conclusions just gathered, it comes out that the purposes of the planned action
should be routed firstly toward a sustainability principle. This could be considered on different
sides of the tourism related theme:
-

sustainability of the environment, avoiding massive building impacts on the structure of
the territory, the landscape and avoiding additional pollution production;

-

sustainability of the social implications of the action, avoiding

reasons of social

collisions or conflicts;
-

sustainability of the realisation in the long term, avoiding the risk of leaving the results
get in ruin once accomplished.

According to this principle the intervention methodology will be deeply involved in pointing out
and examine the presently existent structures of the territory (trails, pathways, itineraries)
trying to evaluate the point of strength and weakness of their function and to rationalise and
valorise their utility in a networking and integrated system perspective, instead of creating
something totally new.

The second principle of intervention should be oriented to the rerouting of the actual main
tourist flux. This should be recognised both on geographical level and on seasonal level. The
first, trying to divert the coastal localisation of the seaside leisure to other destinations moved
toward the hinterland, ensuring thus a more uniform distribution in the area of the economic
development of the tourist related services.

The second, trying to attract the Northern

European tourist demand of hot and spring during the winter months of January and
February. This could be achieved thanks to the hinterland climate temperate attractiveness in
these months, when the green Mediterranean flora and the advanced blossoming helps to
give a feeling of wake up of the natural environment even in this early season.
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The third principle of intervention should be linked to a strategy of adaptation to climate
change, in order to find suitable themes of tourist attractiveness alternative or complementary
to the already existing ones, enhancing secondary leisure themes, environmental or cultural
appeals or open-air sporting activities.

The last principle involves the biodiversity protection. This theme should be linked to the
general overlaying purpose of tourist offer enhancement, trying to explore new directions as
for the landscape fruition thematic routing. The selection of the landscape as the focusing
element is motivated by two reasons: a) the landscape “plays an important public interest role
in the cultural, ecological, environmental and social fields and is a valuable resource
conducive to economic activity, notably tourism” (Council of Europe, 2007)7; b) in the area of
the survey there is an amazing richness and concentration of landscape variability (as will be
later reported into this study).

Landscape fruition
To best illustrate the underlying importance of the landscape fruition principle just enunciated,
is interesting to be noted that this theme is object of present research in many parts of the
word. In Europe there is an advanced program of landscape characterisation and
conservation aligned with the European Landscape Convention, launched in Florence in
October 2000. In particular the European project "Pathways to Cultural Landscapes"
(Pathways to Cultural Landscapes, 2008) enabled international cooperation between the
partners of twelve national projects, promoting networking and communication of the concept
of cultural landscapes to a broad public. Among the main achievements of this project has
been the creation of a Characterisation Team in England on 2002, to promote ways of using
characterisation methods to help to manage change to the historic environment. Since 1994,
English Heritage (the national agency for protecting and promoting the historic environment)
has been carrying out a programme of historic landscape characterisation (HLC) throughout
England, in partnership with individual county councils. HLC is a GIS map-based technique
designed to produce a generalised understanding of the historic and archaeological
dimension of the present-day landscape. It serves a variety of uses, such as education,
research, land-management, agricultural environmental incentive schemes, spatial planning
and environmental impact assessment. (English Heritage, 2008)
HLC works by using computerised Geographical Information Systems (GIS), that attributes
each block of land to one of a range of landscape Types. The basic building block is a group
of fields or other means of land parcel. The size of the blocks varies according to the grain of
7

A special paragraph on the landscape importance on matter of public planning issues was inserted on
pages 60-62 of ARSIAL GreenLink pilot project n° 3 “Virtual museum and environment”.
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the landscape, itself a product of an area’s history of land-use and settlement. GIS databases
allow the judgement and interpretation that underlie the attribution of an area to a Type to be
recorded and made explicit, thus helping to measure the subjectivity of the characterisation.
Maps can be produced at whatever degree of certainty or detail is required for a particular
purpose.
Inside the project were developed specific methodologies for the characterisation phase that
could be taken as an example for further studies (Darlington J., 2004).

Compound analysis
The compound analysis of the territory has been achieved prospecting for the present or past
initiatives operated

locally,

according to the general principles of sustainability and re-

routing already mentioned, both on the level of tourist routes and pathways realisations
already carried out in the area and on the present state of tourist related services and
structures. The collection of data was performed interviewing local stakeholders and
managing authorities and collecting information. The different items were inventoried and
listed with a reference letter of identification to ease the following steps of comparation and
characterisation:
The last step of the collection was accomplished through a mapping of the different existent
routes and ongoing initiatives thanks to the utilisation of a GIS.
Particular attention was addressed to the landscape inventory of the area, performed for the
agriculture landscape sector, with the aim of a valorisation of the tourist fruition of this
important feature. This has been realised only as a preliminary pilot attempt without
pretension to be conclusive or definite for the whole territorial context .

Collection
The collection of the data was performed taking in account three levels of elements:
-

the first related: a) to tourist trails, pathways and itineraries already existent in the area;
b) present ongoing initiatives;

-

the second on the present state of tourist-related services and structures. These were
inventoried thanks to a survey on hotels, B&B and farm accommodations (“Agriturismi”),
on existing cycle lanes, on picnic and children’s leisure areas, on horse riding, cycle and

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canoe renting places. The restaurant, bar and catering segment of services was not
taken in consideration for its excessive fragmentation and for the transitional character
of many firms that stay open only for a season.
-

the third level was on the attractiveness emergencies in the project area. These in a
general way could concern :
ƒ

natural environment heritage (distinctive environmental features, geological
formations, springs, nature protected areas)

ƒ

historical heritage (archaeological places, museums, monuments, war significant
places, cemeteries)

ƒ

religious heritage (churches, sanctuary, pilgrimages)

ƒ

cultural heritage (architectonic features, landscape transformations, typical
productions, etc… )

ƒ

sporting emergencies (training places, local sports aptitude)

The degree of completeness in the collection phase of these three level of elements was very
deep for the firs and second level. Instead, the third level on attractiveness emergencies was
carried out only for three main kinds of element, selected during the preliminary field surveys,
because of their prominent importance: water springs and sources, historical (archaeological)
emergencies and agriculture landscape features.
The results of the survey were translated on a GIS tool that enabled the presentation of the
geographical area coverage for each distinctive feature.
The collection of the data was accomplished thanks to the materials, documents and direct
information obtained through surveys and interviews with the main stakeholders of the
scenario. These were: “Agro Pontino” cultural association, Alberto Alberti (Associazione
Giovane Montagna, sezione di Roma), APT Latina, Associazione Fiume Cavata, “Circolo
Canottieri” (Sabaudia), Comune di Latina (Assessorato al Turismo), Comune di Terracina,
Consorzio di Bonifica dell’Agro Pontino, Emilio Selvaggi (WWF Terracina), “Pangea Onlus”
(Sabaudia), Riserva del Monumento Naturale di Campo Soriano.

Existent tourist routes and pathways
A first stage of data collection and GIS representation involved the trails and pathways
(realised in the past or derived from the past) that could be accomplished on foot, cycle or
other sustainable transport ways.

APT-CAI routes -

On the whole of Latina Province level, the first attempt of a tourist

valorisation of the hinterland was attempted by the APT of Latina Province (Tourist Promotion
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Local Agency) in the lates 1979-1980 with the realisation of eight itineraries for school visiting
guided tours for educational value.
The same agency realised in the following years different achievements, as for:
-

1980 - “Seven mountain itineraries”, to be accomplished on foot;

-

1986 – “Twelve nature trails”, to be accomplished on foot;

-

1995 – “Seven tourist itineraries”, to be accomplished on car, mapped with explicative
texts (APT Latina, 1995);

-

1998 – “Eighty-two mountain pathways” (for walks and trekking), realised in
collaboration with the CAI (Italian Alpine Club), duly traced and marked along the route
with the CAI distinctive sign posts and marks and illustrated by maps, photographs and
explicative texts (APT Latina, 1998);

-

2003 – “Enology- gastronomy itineraries” in collaboration with the “Club del Gusto”
(The Taste Club) and ARSIAL, to be accomplished on car, mapped with explicative
texts and directory of the typical restaurants and agro-food producers (APT Latina,
2003).

-

2005 – “Eight tourist itineraries”, to be accomplished on car, mapped with explicative
texts (APT Latina, 2005).

To the present study purpose, only four of the 1998 Eighty-two mountain pathways will be
taken in consideration, because they fall into the study’s area. These are:
a) pathway n° 30 “Punta Leano”, starting from the church of S. Silviano in La Valle of
Terracina, for a total extension of 4.8 km to be accomplished in 1.15 hours trekking
(plus the return) with 430 m height difference;
b) pathway n° 31 “Monte Leano” ”, starting from the church of S. Silviano in La Valle of
Terracina for a total extension of 5.4 km to be accomplished in 2 hours trekking (plus
the return) with 620 m height difference;
c) pathway n° 32 “Monte Romano”, starting from Campo Soriano for a total extension of
3,8 km to be accomplished in 1.15 hours trekking (plus the return) with 550 m height
difference.
d) pathway n° 33 “Monte Romano” starting from Sonnino for a total extension of 7.2 km to
be accomplished in 3 hours trekking (plus the return) with 890 m height difference.

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The APT - CAI’s pathways n° 30, 31, 32, 33 geographical siting

WWF-Terracina Municipality trails - During the 90ies, the local WWF section of Terracina,
jointly with the Municipality’s Tourism Department, created three trekking trails on the
mountain hinterland of Terracina, called as “Sentiero A”, “B”, and “C”. These are mapped
and illustrated with detailed explicative texts and images on the Website of the Terrapontina
Association (http://www.terrapontina.it/tresentieri.htm). They are circularly featured and
thematic oriented, reminding their own ancient utilisation as trade routes for the supplying of
the town:

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The WWF – Terracina Municipality’s pathways geographical siting

e) Trail A “The way of coal and firewood”, linking the localities of La Ciana - Fonte Santo
Stefano - Mammolini - La Ciana, for a total extension of 8 km, to be accomplished in
three hours trekking with moderate height difference (210 m), marked in white and
orange colours;
f)

Trail B “The way of the high pastures or of the three water reservoirs”, linking the
localities of San Silviano - Cima Leano - Francolane - San Silviano, for a total extension
of 16 km to be accomplished in 5 hours trekking with an height difference of 625 m,
tracing in its first part the APT – CAI’s n° 31 trail with white and red signs, then in the
second part of the course marked in white and blue colours.

g) Trail C “Across three municipalities and two states” (with reference to the border line
between the Pontifical State and the Two Sicilies Kingdom) linking the localities of
Fasana - Costa dell’Acquasanta - Monte Romano - Valico del confine - Campo Soriano
- Valle Fasana, for a total extension of 16 km, to be accomplished in 7 hours trekking
with an height difference of 537 m, marked in yellow and blue colours.

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h) Another smaller trail, called “Sentiero Monte S. Angelo”, of 1.2 km has been
accomplished in recent years thanks to WWF’s voluntary effort, to restore the ancient
accessing route to the Temple of Giove Anxur in Terracina.

The present state of conservation
of WWF’s pathways is not very
good (Sentiero “A” at the beginning
of its course)

Circeo National Park trails - The Circeo National Park managing authority developed different
trails inside the protected area, white the purpose of tourist fruition both on the Pontine Plain
and on the Monte Circeo parts of its territory. These are usually available both for cycling and
on foot. The geographical positioning of these trails has been issued on different kinds of
maps published by the Park authority or by the APT or exhibited on the informative boards in
many sites of the park or on the park website (http://www.parks.it/parco.nazionale.circeo/).
The trails themselves are listed thanks to a number assigned to the place of start and are
characterised by different themes, as for the “trails into the forest”, the “didactic trail”, the
“nature trail”, etc…They are too numerous and often not exactly identified

to be listed

individually into this frame and therefore they will be collectively taken in consideration
divided in two main groups:
i)

Circeo National Park trails and pathways situated into the Pontine Plain primary forest
remaining part, for about 43 km length;

j)

Circeo National Park trails and pathways situated into the Circeo Promontory area, for
about 19 km extension.

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The Circeo National Park’s pathways geographical siting

Circeo National Park’s trails are
frequented by many walkers even in
the winter season

The cycle trails are large, in good state
and well marked. There is a good canopy
offering shadow and freshness even during
the hottest months.

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Campo Soriano Reserve trails - The Monumento Naturale di Campo Soriano managing
authority has developed four differentiated circular trails in order to enhance the tourist
fruition of its protected area. These are:
k) a mountain bike trail of 6.3 km, marked in blue;
l)

a trekking trail of about 16 km length around the Monte Romano peak, marked in green
(the path it is the same as WWF’s “Sentiero C”);

m) a trekking trail of 3 km length around Campo dell’Ova – Largo Montagna, marked in
orange colour;
n) a didactic trail of 1.5 km of length around the “Cattedrale or Rava di S. Domenico” stone
monument, to be performed under guided tour, marked in violet colour.
All these trails have been issued on different kinds of maps published by the Park authority or
exhibited on the informative boards near the visiting centre of the park, or on the park website
(http://www.parks.it/mn.campo.soriano/index.html).

The Monumento Naturale di Campo Soriano’s pathways geographical siting

The Campo Soriano’s orange colour marked pathway
course offers moments of impressive nature beauty

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The blue marked pathway enables to enjoy beautiful
landscape views

Selvaggi routes - On 1996 a book was published by initiative of a local scholar (Selvaggi,
1996) that described different itineraries to be accomplished on train, on car, on foot and
canoe in the surroundings of Terracina. Among the others there is an interesting proposal of
car itinerary in order to valorise the roman archaeological ruins along via Appia till to Idrovora
di Mazzocchio (the oldest and greatest hydraulic plant that regulates the water level into the
irrigation channels), but the most interesting to this study purposes are:
o) a train/walking itinerary called “Dalla Fiora al Frasso” (n° 7) of about 6.8 km in train and
5 km on foot (plus the return), from the railway station of Terracina along the ancient via
Appia to La Fiora and behind Monte Nero till to Frasso railway station, for 5 hours
course;
p) a canoe itinerary (the n° 4) called “Circuito dei canali” of about 15 km length, starting
from Terracina, along the Mortacino channel and then from Badino along the Portatore
channel till Pontemaggiore and back to Terracina, thanks to the Linea Pio channel
along via Appia, for a 6 hours travel.
Always Selvaggi, realised recently a “cycling-tour” of the “Valle dei Santi”, in the frame of
guided tours organised in the surroundings of Terracina to visit the ancient archaeological
Roman ruins. This tour was mapped with explicative texts and images of ancient prints and
present photos on a leaflet distributed by the local hotels:
q) a cycling tour of about 13 km length, starting from Piazza dei 4 Lampioni, near the
station of Terracina along the ancient Via Appia, till Feronia spring, the church of S.
Silviano and the ruins of the ancient Roman walls in La Valle, for a 3 hours travel.

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The Selvaggi’s itineraries geographical siting

The ancient Roman fortified farm walls
along the La Valle Cycle route tour
proposed by Selvaggi

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Religious processions – Since from the medieval age in the project area every year two
ancient religious processions follow a sacred route to perform their traditional rituality. Their
course is fixed in the ages or stand small variations due to technical and modernisation
exigencies. But they could be taken in account in this survey because they represent a strong
tourist attractiveness pulse, even if only once in the year:
r) Processione delle Torce (Torches procession), that starts on Whit Monday from
Sonnino and is performed during the night by distinctive masters of ceremony: four
Corporals (“Caporali”), two scouts (“Viaroli”) and more than 300 flambeaux carriers
(“Torciaroli”). All together they go, along different stops for about 15 km length, from the
Sonnino Sant’Angelo church along the ancient mountain trails, to Campo Soriano and
to the Frasso’s Madonna delle Grazie church. The remaining torches will be lighted
during the storms to turn away the thunders (as it is believed);
s) Processione della Sorresca, that is performed on Whit Monday too by the inhabitants of
San Felice Circeo, going on foot along the usual traffic roads for about 13 km length to
the Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Sorresca on the shore of Sabaudia Lake.

The religious routes geographical siting

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The S. Maria della
Sorresca pilgrimage
sanctuary

Present tourist routing initiatives
Presently on the territory there are different initiatives of networking and tourist routing
promotion in progress. These are:

Latina Tellus Ecomuseo -

Probably this is the most important networking local action,

promoted by the Latina Municipality together with nine other municipalities of the territory
(Terracina excluded) and the Circeo National Park, aiming at establishing a network of
integrated area with the purpose to valorise the environmental, cultural and tourist features.
The “Eco-museum” approach defines a strategy that enhances the tourist offer of the cultural
and environmental values of the territory thanks to a model of “outdoors museum” to be read
and experienced in on-live way for a sustainability principle.
The action was acknowledged by the Region decree DGR 1300/2004 as one of the official
APIs of Latium (Integrated Area Projects) and was funded thanks to the Regional Law n° 40
of 1999. The action was guided by an initiative of territorial analysis that featured the
following items:
-

the sites where the concentration of emergencies (points of attractiveness) and the
number of visitors was high;

-

the sites with only one emergency but with distinctive character;

-

the sites to be considered of potential attractiveness;

-

the strategic nodes of the communication system.

The action brought to the realisation of a map of the emergencies on the territory (marked by
a distinctive symbology, number and list); a map of the communication (with the siting of the
strategic signal post and informational panels); a map of the itineraries (where different
thematic routes are traced).
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Three route themes were selected:
-

Water ways – wetlands and thermal places (the land reform and reclamation, the
foundation of the pioneer towns and villages, the wetlands, the plain sources and
springs).

-

The sea and the islands (the sea of the myths).

-

The old roads of Latium (the ancient via Appia and the Via Severiana – the coastal
route).

The project is now in an advanced phase of realisation in the communication and marketing
process, with the executive planning yet accomplished (information and sign boards siting
and design, leaflet, video, website). The achievement is designed to be market oriented with
the participation of different subjects. Various local planning centres have been forecasted,
each one to represent the informational gateway for its own territory with a welcome centre,
an orienting and an interpretation centre. A marketing and management plan has been
started with different steps of work: training stages, definition of surveys on the territory,
acknowledgement of the market opportunities and a packet of projects composed by 16
projects transversal to the municipalities and 59 projects specific for the single municipalities.

The Latina Tellus action forecasted routes

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Via Francigena Sud route - The ancient “Via Francigena” was a route (usually to be made on
foot or on horseback) exploited by the Lombards during their Italian Kingdom (568 – 774 A.
D.) when the state of the Roman Imperial roads where out of service. On this road travelled
thousands of pilgrims from Canterbury to Rome on medieval age. A south prosecution of the
road brought to the pilgrimage8 centres on the Gargano in Apulia and to the harbours for the
Holy Land. The route course was not well defined and could vary according to the conditions
of the weather, to the wars, etc… In the project area the South Via Francigena took two
parallel courses: one along the coast in the middle of the Pontine Plain and along the foot of
the boarding mountains; the other in the hinterland (behind the Lepini mountain range) along
the Sacco river valley.
The story that brought to the development of the Italian via Francigena route’s initiative is
linked

to

the

activities

of

the

association

“Giovane

Montagna

on

line”

(http://www.giovanemontagna.org/) and of the person in charge of its roman section, Mr.
Alberto Alberti, whom starting from 1999, promoted various manifestations and marches to
discover and re-trace the old route, supported and helped by many local groups and
associations all along the different regions of its course and by the RAI, the Italian National
Broadcasting network. (Alberti A., 2005). These actions were successful thanks to the high
involvement of the local communities planned by the organisers. Every year a collective
march made stops in each village involving local schools, cultural events, choirs and typical
foods, festivals, historical revivals. This helped local administrators and the public to be
aware of the importance of the route as an heritage from the past and as economical
propulsion for the future.
Presently in the frame of the Council of Europe trail heritages’ initiative (see Attachment 1,
on page 103) the road has been exploited to tourist purposes thanks to a specific association
(European Association of Vie Francigene: http://www.associazioneviafrancigena.com) and
has

a

proper

reference

in

the

Latium

Region

culture

official

website

(http://www.culturalazio.it/culturaweb_2/schedeInfo/?id=148&pag=true&boxCorr=true).
The Region with the Deliberation G.R. 819 of 26.10.2007 approved the funding of €
1,950,000 for the Integrated Area Projects interested in the prosecution of the Via Francigena
South of Rome, dividing the route in two parallel itineraries: one on the hinterland (Variante
pedemontana) and one on the coast (Variante di pianura) through the Pontine Plain and Via
Appia. The decree committed the funding to the API’s (namely to Latina Tellus network) as
coordinators of local initiatives or as partners of temporary aggregations to perform the tourist
valorisation works. Presently it seems that Latina Tellus (which, as it seems, excludes the
Terracina’s area from its own interests) will exploit geographically the Pontine Plain section
8

One of the main pilgrimage destinations in this epoch traced the sanctuaries of the Michael Archangel
connected to Gargano, Rome (S.Angelo Castle), Piemont and St Michael's Mount in France. This destination
was related to the Lombard mythology and to the pastoral warrior divinities.
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and another API,

named “Compagnia dei Lepini” (http://www.compagniadeilepini.it), will

exploit the hinterland section of the mountain municipalities and the connection to
Fossanova.

The Via Francigena route geographical
siting

Pangea environmental guided tours - Different didactical guided tours are offered by Pangea
Onlus. Pangea is a local association that is engaged from 1992 to ensure educational and
training activities for the environment and for the nature reserves at international and national
level. The association offers 23 different guided tours to archaeological, cultural and
environmental themes of the territory, targeted mainly to visiting schools and groups
(www.istpangea.it).

But these tours aim specifically at guiding visiting groups (mainly

schools) along different thematic environmental paths and therefore they will be not
considered in the analysis phase.

Le Vie della Transumanza - “Le vie Pontine e Ciociare della Transumanza” (the Pontine and
Ciociaria’s ways of the flocks migrations) is a project borne thanks to the “Leader+” funding to
enhance the tourist fruition of the Circeo National Park and the Campo Soriano Nature
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Reserve. The project established an itinerary to be achieved on car and on foot to know
better the culture, the environment and the local heritages of the area along a pathway not
exactly marked or labelled on place, but mapped on general level on the Internet website
(http://www.parks.it/parco.nazionale.circeo/ProgettoLeader.html), and on a CD:
-

the (ideal) itinerary goes from the Circeo park visit centre in a circular path, to Sonnino,
Campo Soriano, San Felice and back to the visit centre, with digressions on the peak of
Monte Romano (path not well defined), to Monte Circeo, and to Cerasella (visiting place
of the Circeo Park) for a total extension of about 98 km of mixed (by car and on foot)
route.

Le Vie della Transumanza route geographical siting

Canoeing initiatives - Canoeing route initiatives on the rivers and channels of the territory
were promoted recently jointly by three local associations: the “Associazione Culturale Agro
Pontino”, the “Associazione Fiume Cavata”, the “Circolo Canottieri di Sabaudia” and by the
body managing the internal water courses of the Pontine Plain, the Consorzio di Bonifica
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dell’Agro Pontino. Canoeing and row sports are already an established international reality
for Sabaudia lake, where there is a presence of four army national training and sporting
circles and other two private circles.
The navigation of the internal watercourses, that flourished during the Roman imperial age,
when the crossing of the Pontine plain was accomplished on boat drawn by mules, utilising
the channel along the via Appia

(as referred with special discomfort even by the poet

Horace), was abandoned after the 50ies and 60ies of the last century. In the area there is
still the memory of the typical flat bottomed boats utilised and of the use of cleaning the water
courses from the marshy vegetation by forcing buffalo’s herds into the channels (Selvaggi,
1996).
The area is crossed by a large network of channels and rivers and many of them are apt for
sustainable navigation. For law this should be allowed by the Genio Civile (Region Authority)
and by the Consorzio di Bonifica (the owner of the network) and is still ruled by a police
regulation of 1933 appointing the Consorzio di Bonifica in charge of the surveillance.
But today the Consortium has all the interest to enhance the tourist fruition of its water
course, and consequently in collaboration with the three foresaid associations is planning a
project for restoring row navigation along two main tracts of its watercourse network:
-

Canoeing initiative 1, along the river Ufente integral course (24,8 km) with an extension
on sea, around the Circeo Promontory coast till into the Sabaudia (Paola) lake (for a
total extension of 50 km);

-

Canoeing initiative 2, along the line “Cavata river” – “Linea Pio” channel from near
Sermoneta till to the crossing with the “SP Migliara 53” road, where the channel is
barred (for a total extension of 23 km) .

The project, still in its elaboration phase, foresees the utilisation of three structures

of

services (through a functional restoration) situated on key places along these water routes:
near Cotarda (“Cantoniera Cotarda” on Ufente river), near Pontinia (“Stazione Sanitaria M.48”
on Linea Pio channel) and at Pontemaggiore (where the two lines could join up if there was
not a barrier before, pointed on the map as “Linea M.53”).
One of the more interesting features of the project is the integration of sustainable transports
along the routes (from an idea exploited by the Associazione Fiume Cavata) allowing up river
course travelling by cycles and down course travelling in canoe, utilising those three services
structures as nodal centres of exchange cycle-canoe.
The development of the project has been supported by a strong awareness-making and
dissemination action through public manifestations of group-canoeing along the Ufente river
once in the year, as for the “Ufente, un fiume da navigare” of September, the 23rd 2006 (with
the participation of 54 boats) or for the “1° Weekend Canoa Trophy Land Rover” on October
6-7, 2007 (with the participation of 40 boats) . This latter was originally designed with a sea
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course too, that from the mouth of the Ufente river, went in the sea along the coast and round
the Circeo Promontory, to enter the Sabaudia lake. On 2008 the manifestation “Regata del
dilettante” will be held on May under the patronage of the Federal Regional Kayak
Committee.
Another interesting feature of economic integration promoted by the Associazione Fiume
Cavata’s initiative is the manifestation “Oggi me la sono cavata. Spesa in canoa” (transl.
“Today I escaped well. Shopping in canoe”), held on May, 1st. This proposes a collaboration
with the farmers that owns properties along the river Cavata to sell directly on the river banks
their fruit and vegetables products to the canoeing participants, and his earning a fairly good
success both among the farmers and the sporting participants.

The canoeing initiative project geographical siting

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Present tourist-related services and structures
A second level of collection and GIS representation of this study involved the tourist services
and the presence of related structures in the area. These were inventoried thanks to APT
Latina

(APT Latina, 2007) and to Pangea Onlus Association assistance. The featured

service and structures were:
1. accommodation structure divided into: hotels, Bed & Breakfast and farm
accommodation (“Agriturismi”). The segments of rooms and apartments to rent and
campings were not accounted for, because of their temporary permanence or out-ofofficial-registering quality;
2. structures for better environmental fruition (picnic areas, children playing areas) or for
sports and outdoor activities as for cycle or boat rent, horse riding, etc…
Other kind of services as for bar, restaurants, typical locals, night clubs, traditional foods
shops, canteens, etc…, were not accounted for, because of their general transitory quality
that deserves a prolonged monitoring action repeated along the years.

Accommodation typologies and geographical siting

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Tourist services geographical siting
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Attractiveness emergencies characterisation of the area
In the attractiveness emergencies context only three kinds of elements were selected and
collected: historical (archaeological features), natural (springs) and cultural (agriculture
landscape), since they were judged the most important on a preliminary field survey. The
data were collected thanks to Pangea Onlus Association and thanks to ARSIAL on field trip
surveys.

Historical emergencies geographical siting

The main historical emergencies, inventoried by age (Prehistory, Roman, Medieval
Renaissance), are geographically distributed along the coast, along the ancient Via Appia or
the Amaseno river. This localisation does not enable to perform their visiting tour during a
single course. The water resources (springs and sources) instead are mainly located in the
border between the plain and the hills. This last localisation eases a grouping to visiting
purposes along a single route.

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Water sources and springs emergencies geographical siting

Preliminary agricultural landscape characterisation of the territory
Waiting for a regional appropriate characterisation of the Latium landscape territory,

a

preliminary characterisation of the agricultural landscape biodiversity of the project area was
accomplishes according to the following stages:
1. individuation of the different agricultural typologies of the area;
2. assessment through on-field survey of the specified agricultural landscape typology;
3. recording of the typology through digital images;
4. attribution of the identifying features;
5. geographical individuation of the identified feature (mapping).

Methodology utilised for the characterisation

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1. From the Land Use Map of the Latium Region cartographic system it is possible to detect
some wide-areas of agriculture typologies biodiversity, these could be distinguished by
their crop aptitude and environmental ties (see Wide areas of agriculture biodiversity from
a technical aptitude point of view map on page 41). Thanks to the preliminary surveys on
field it was possible to detect specific agriculture characteristic features, originated both
from historical and geographical reasons:
a) the XVIII-XX century plain land reclamation area;
b) the primeval subsiding plain agriculture areas;
c) the mountain and hill traditional agriculture;
d) the remains of primeval plain area extensive husbandry systems (see Wide
areas of agriculture biodiversity from an historical and geographical point of view
map on page 41).

2. The on field surveys performed with the purpose of assess the different agricultural
landscape typologies were performed by ARSIAL technicians with the assistance of local
stakeholders of the environmental protection.

3. The digital recording of the landscape images was the result of a selection of 570 photos
shot during six field surveys accomplished on 21/01/08, 29/01/08, 08/02/08, 15/02/08,
12/03/08 and 14/03/08.

4. In this pilot attempt of characterisation of agricultural landscapes the attribution of
identifying features was performed on the most impressive visual features taking in
account the following principles:
-

spatial structure (open or linear);

-

function (crops producing or livestock breeding);

-

typologies (according to the features inventoried at point “1.”);

-

relevance (significant extension in the space compared with the total area
extension).

The output of the work accomplished at this stage will be described in the following
paragraph Identified agricultural landscape features. The agriculture identified landscapes
were listed under a code according to:
a) linear structures;
b) open space places;
c) architectonic elements;
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5. The geographical siting of the inventoried landscapes has been performed only on wide
area scale. This means that the survey accomplished on the territory identified common
characteristics of: a) linear structures and b) open space elements, on an area of 3-4 km
of ray, without going down to further detail. The architectonic elements present in the
territory were inventoried only along the routes proposed (due to lack of time and
resources). The mountain area landscape was identified according to the same principle,
therefore further inquiries should be performed to the purposes of a total identification of
the agriculture landscape of the whole territory. The output of the work accomplished at
this stage too will be described in the following paragraph Identified agricultural landscape
features.

Agriculture landscape characterised typologies
a) linear spatial structures
a.1. Sheltered roads instances
a11 Black locust
a12 Eucalyptus and Black Locust
a13 Eucalyptus
a14 overgrown Eucalyptus
a15 Stone pine
a16 Cork oak
a.2. Watercourse instances
a21 ditch sheltered by Eucalyptus
a22 ditch sheltered by natural growth trees
a23 river without trees
a24 river with natural growth trees
a25 river with Eucalyptus belts
a26 river with overgrown Eucalyptus belts

b.2. (Primeval) Hill agriculture instances
b21 plateau grazing pastures
b22 sown fields
b23 geological adaptation
b24 moderate steep terraced olive groves
b25 steep terraced olive groves
b.3. Present agriculture instances
b31 coast irrigated grassland
b32 central sandy sown fields
b33 central clay sown fields
b34 hinterland black soil sown field
b35 foothill plains sown fields
b36 coast intensive horticulture
b37 cattle intensive husbandry
b38 buffalo intensive husbandry

b) open spatial places
b.1. Primeval plain agriculture outlived instances
b11 lake aquaculture works
b12 plain buffalo's pastures
b13 extensive sown fields
b14 associated staked systems
b15 fruit & vegetables orchards
b16 old olive groves
b17 orange tree orchards
b18 cork oak groves
b19 mixed cattle and forest systems
b110 mixed cattle farm systems

c) primeval architectonic landscape elements:
c.1. Old farms instances
c11 old farms of the plain
c12 old farms of the hills
c.2. Old secondary elements
c21 old springs
c22 old hydraulic plants
c23 drinking troughs of the plain
c24 drinking trough of the hills
c25 stone boundaries
c26 devotional monuments

The list of agriculture landscape formations inventoried

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The vegetation & agriculture land use map of the
project area (elaborated from Latium Region
Assessorato all’Urbanistica - Carta dell’Uso del
Suolo data source)
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Wide areas of agriculture biodiversity from a technical aptitude point of view

Wide areas of agriculture biodiversity from an historic and geographical point of view
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Identified agricultural landscape features
The ranking of the identified features was executed obeying firstly to the spatial structure and
than to an area order, going from the sea coast to the hinterland. The identified landscapes
are:

a) linear spatial structures, these refers mainly to watercourses (ditches, channels, rivers)
and roads. They belong all to the “a)” landscape typology and are characterised by different
shelter belts three varieties and by the functional nature of the watercourse (irrigation ditches
and channels are usually sheltered by Eucalyptus belts, rivers instead by natural riparian
vegetation). The belonging to the agricultural landscape is due to their land reclamation origin
and/or by their agricultural utilisation.

a.1. Sheltered roads instances:

a.1.1)

Secondary road with Silver

wattle (Acacia dealbata) three shelter
belts of impressive effect during the
blossoming season (February), usually
grown by natural seed dispersion.

a.1.2) Secondary road with three shelter
belts

of

associated

essences

(Eucalyptus and Silver wattle) due to
overgrown Eucalyptus maintenance and
natural seed dispersion of Silver wattle.
Temporary association evolving in the
“1)”

type,

consequently

to

the

degradation of the Eucalyptus three
belts because of scarce servicing.

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a.1.3) Distinctive land reclamation road
with (fairly) well maintained Eucalyptus
shelter belt system with its typical
alternated three-rows of threes on each
side.

a.1.4) Secondary road with overgrown
Eucalyptus shelter belt, picturesque and
impressive, its properties are due to a
fault

in

the

maintenance

system.

Undamaged instances are very rare
because of the increased frailty of the
belt.

a.1.5) Stone Pine (Pinus pinea) three
sheltered road, usually only on the main
roads, derived from the classic way of
road

equipment

and

it

was

a

characteristic feature of the Imperial
(Roman consular) roads. On open
spaces it assured not only shadow and
freshness for the ancient travellers, but
it was a mark of identification of the road
from distance.

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a.1.5a) Stone Pine (Pinus pinea) three
sheltered secondary road. The threes
inclination shows the direction of the
prevailing blowing winds (in this case
from

the

sea).

The

Stone

pine

sheltering enables ample visuals on the
sides of the road and doesn’t represent
an

optical

barrier

for

horizontal

landscape fruition.

a.1.6)

Cork

oak

sheltered road,

(Quercus

suber)

uncommonly present

along secondary roads, usually derived
from ancient indigenous remains of the
original primary forest.

a.2. Watercourse instances.

a.2.1)

Secondary

irrigation

ditch

sheltered by Eucalyptus belt in the
distinctive

land

reclamation

original

feature.

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a.2.2)

Secondary

characterised
vegetation

by

irrigation
natural

(poplars) with

ditch
growth

unordered

scheme.

a.2.3) River landscape with absence of
riparian vegetation (in the image the
Ufente

river),

due

to

regular

maintenance of the banks operated by
the local water authority (Consorzio di
Bonifica) and by neighbouring farmers.
The landscape impact of this feature is
realised only in its near proximity (for
instance crossing a bridge) or going
along its course.

a.2.4) River landscape with natural
growing riparian vegetation (in this
image the Sisto river with poplars and
Eucalyptus) due to fault or careless
attention in the banks’ maintenance
schedule. The landscape remote impact
will be slightly increased respect to the
previous instance.

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a.2.5) River landscape with Eucalyptus
three shelter belts, originated by the
land reclamation works (in this case the
Sisto river). Poplar natural intrusion can
endanger the integrity of the belt. The
landscape general impact is great on
distance too.

a.2.6) River landscape with original land
reclamation Eucalyptus shelter belts
overgrown and naturalised, due to
absence of maintenance (the Sisto river
in its low course). The landscape impact
is valuable and the place is a refuge for
a rich wildlife biodiversity.

b) open spatial places. They belong to the different wide area agricultural typologies and are
characterised by diversified farming systems with sometimes high scenery effects. Their
belonging to the artificial/cultural heritage is usually due to the work of many generations of
peasants even when they offers an apparent wildlife impression (as for grazing/pasture
areas, created and maintained by the efforts of herdsmen and of the grazing cattle). To
better understanding the difference among natural and artificial/cultural landscapes the first
three instances inserted in this inventory are represented by natural non-agricultural
landscapes.

The landscape inventory has been arranged along the classification of the

different agriculture historic systems.

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b.0. Non-agricultural natural landscape instances:

b.0.1) Natural coast dune, this kind of
formation centuries ago characterised
the coastal landscape of the great part
of Latium.

b.0.2)

Natural

wetlands,

they

represented a typical formation of the
Pontine Plain before the drainage and
soil reclamation works realised in the
first part of last century.

b.0.3) Natural forest, it was the primeval
coast plane forest of the Latium Region,
and today survives only in the Circeo
National Park area as a left-over remain
of the “Selva di Terracina”.

Great

damages to this ecosystem (as for the
precedent) were due to the Land
Reclamation works.

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