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Media-Com _1

Did you know that Europe produces 930 million tonnes of
waste per year, including 132 million tonnes of
household waste 1?
These 132 million tonnes of household waste, piled 30 metres high, would fill
1,000 football fields! In 1990, 68% of municipal waste was landfilled and 18%
incinerated.
In 1975, the Community Institutions began to introduce policies and measures to
improve waste management. For example, the Member States were required to
draft waste management plans and to introduce policies for prevention, recovery
and recycling, with incineration and landfilling considered less desirable
solutions (for a description of the Community regulatory context, see page 22).
Cities, where population density and therefore production of waste are higher,
play an essential role in the management of municipal waste. For this reason, two
networks of European cities – the ACR-AVR (Association of Cities for Recycling)
and Energie-Cités – along with Agrital Ricerche, an Italian research and study
centre, jointly presented a proposal to the European Commission (DG Environment)
for a project intended to increase awareness on the part of local authorities and the
media in four EU Member States – Spain, Italy, Ireland and the UK – concerning
the need to elaborate local waste management strategies. This project is based on
the experience of the REMECOM network (European Network of Measures for
Classification of Household Waste; see page 2) as an example of exchanges
between cities regarding methods of analysis and measurement of the volume of
household waste at local level.
Media-Com : a means of increasing awareness and a collection of examples of
«good practice»
As a result of this proposal we have produced Media-com, a method for raising
awareness of waste management based on descriptions of «good practice» in 18
cities in eleven countries of the EU. Some of these cities participated in the
REMECOM network and adopted its methodology, while others chose to remain
independent of REMECOM, in hopes that their own waste management practices
could serve as an example to others. All these practices are described in an
attractive, non-technical style and are supported by statistics and simple
technical information, as well as illustrations. This document, which could also be
termed a collection of «good practices», constitutes a source of information and
ideas for local authorities and the media. We sincerely hope this document is a
positive contribution to all initiatives taken in Europe to improve local
management of household waste and thereby to promote integrated and
sustainable urban development.

1

Figures for 1990
Source : Commission Communication on a re-examination of the Community strategy for waste
management – COM (96) 399 final.

Media-Com _2

The European Network for Measurement and
Characterization of Household Waste1(Réseau Européen de
Mesures pour la Caractérisation des Ordures Ménagères):
defining an analysing and quantifying method for
household waste
Remecom
The REMECOM network was created in 1995 at the initiative of ADEME 2, out of a
desire on the part of the partners in the project – 18 local municipalities in six
Member States – to exchange experiences concerning sampling and analysis of
household waste.
The cities that participated in the activities of this network over three years
aimed to:
- become more familiar with the composition of their household waste, improve
recycling and assess the effectiveness of their sorting schemes,
- to exchange and compare the results while harmonising their data.
This project was subsidised by the European Commission via LIFE, the Community
financial instrument for the environment.
Before a city can begin to recycle its waste and introduce a waste sorting scheme,
it must first conduct a global assessment of flows of household waste, estimate
their composition and identify their source. Once the type and quality of material
to be processed is known, suitable procedures for collection and provision for
treatment of waste can be established. Harmonised measuring methods facilitate
assessment of whether the efficiency of sorting schemes meets the stated
objectives, as well as comparison of results over time.
Documents on REMECOM available
from ADEME:
- Methodological reference:
«How to assess your sources of
household waste. Strategies and tools
from the REMECOM» is available in
English (reference number: 3158),
Spanish (reference number: 3159) and
Italian (reference number: 3160).
- REMECOM network presentation
document: available in English
(reference number: 2393)
from André Gaillard, ADEME
communication service,
27, rue Louis Vicat, FR-75015 Paris.
Tel.+33 1 47 65 24 61, fax+33 1 46 45 52 36,
e-mail : Andre.gaillard@ademe.fr.

The REMECOM reference methodology produced by ADEME and its partners at the
conclusion of the LIFE project presents the results of the exchanges of experience
between the partners as concerns validation of methods of sampling and analysis
of household waste. It provides detailed recommendations and methods for
sampling, analysis, interpretation of results and data comparisons for cities
interested in introducing waste sorting schemes. It constitutes a useful tool for
cities that wish to implement a waste management plan or assess the
effectiveness of their sorting schemes.
Media-Com
In 1999, the ACR-AVR (Association of Cities for Recycling), Energie-Cités and
Consorzio Agrital Ricerche implemented the MEDIA-COM project with the support of
the European Commission (DG Environment) and in partnership with ADEME. Its
objective is to promote this methodological reference for the characterisation of
household waste and more generally sound management of household waste. Local
authorities and the media should be most concerned by the described experiences.
1

Visit the ADEME website at
http://www.ademe.fr.

What is characterisation of household waste?
Characterisation of household waste means measuring the qualitative content, i.e.,
by type of waste, in addition to measuring the quantities generated by a particular waste
source. An effective waste sorting scheme can be designed (on the basis of sampling, sorting
and data processing), implemented and assessed.
The content of waste varies according to national, regional and even local specificities.

2

The ADEME
The Agency for Environment and Energy Management (Agence de l’Environnement et de la
Maîtrise de l’Energie) is an establishment of the French government under the authority of the
Ministries of the Environment, Industry and Research. It is composed of 26 regional
delegations and is active in the areas of energy monitoring, renewable energy sources, waste
management, pollution (air, soil, noise) and technological research and development.

Media-Com _3

Table of Contents

Case studies

Regulatory context

Partners of the Media-Com project

Barcelona
Brussels
Carpi
Dublin
Fiumicino
Hanover
Helsinki
Hurepoix
Jerez de la Frontera
Leeds
Lille
Milton Keynes
Munich
Porto
Rome
Salzburg
Stuttgart
The Hague

Spain
Belgium
Italy
Ireland
Italy
Germany
Finland
France
Spain
United Kingdom
France
United Kingdom
Germany
Portugal
Italy
Austria
Germany
Netherlands

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

European Union
Italy
Ireland
United Kingdom
Spain

22
24
25
26
27

Energie-Cités
ACR - Association of Cities for Recycling
Consorzio Agrital Ricerche

28

The project partners thank the organisations and municipalities for the
illustrations that they have kindly provided. Authorization required for further
reproduction. This publication is available in four languages (English, French,
Italian and Spanich) and also on the website www.energie-cites.org in the
section «What’s new?».

City Barcelona
Country Spain
Population 1,550,000
Households 510,000
Area 99 km2
Type of development Urban
Contact person Ayuntamiento de Barcelona - Salvany Sabate

Media-Com _4

C/ Torrent de l’Olla 218-220 6° E-08012

Barcelona Spain

Tel. 34 93 291 41 60 - Fax 34 93 291 41 54

Waste vacuumed up for recycling
In Barcelona, the sorting scheme is based on voluntary drop-off of three general
types of waste: glass, paper and cardboard, and plastics, composite packaging and
metals. These three types of waste are collected in containers located throughout
the city and transported to a sorting or pre-processing centre, where they are sorted
and prepared for recycling.

Processing methods in 1997
Recycling 3% Composting 1%
Incineration 27%

A novel system of collection
This sorting scheme is supplemented by an original method of collection notably of
organic waste and other non-recyclable waste. It is currently in the experimental
stages and operates in only two streets in Barcelona, as well as in the Olympic
village. The residents of the two streets in question received, free of charge, rubbish
bins with two compartments, one for organic and one for non-recyclable waste. They
can empty these bins into boxes with circular openings located along the streets,
from which the waste falls into underground containers and is later vacuumed up
into a container truck. This completely automated system is controlled from a
computer located in the truck. The system was introduced in the main street in May
1998 and was extended to an additional street in February 1999. This collection
method is termed a «mobile» method to distinguish it from the «fixed» system
established in the Olympic village in 1992, where residents of the apartment blocks
concerned use specific rubbish chutes, saving them a trip to the street. Organic
waste is also collected from the city's markets and then transported to the
composting centre. Non-recyclable waste is taken to the incineration unit or the
landfill.

Landfill 69%

Information: the key to success
Naturally, during the first six months after the introduction of this collection
system, Barcelona organised an intensive information campaign, with a team of
people to distribute all the information necessary to residents, along with the dualcompartment rubbish bin. The campaign continued during the ensuing three months
by means of information kiosks located next to the containers. Barcelona is planning
gradually to extend this system to other districts of the city.

Processing objectives for 2006
Controlled landfill 7%
Recycling 30%

Incineration 33%
Composting 12%
Methanisation 18%

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Local drop-off
Glass

8

2,2

Paper and cardboard 16,113

10,4

3

Plastic, metal,
composites

2,7

0,7

21,1

6

Total

12,398
4,232

Media-Com _5

City Brussels
Country Belgium
Population 950,597
Households 464,159
Area 16,238 ha
Type of development Urban, semi-rural
Contact person IBGE-BIM - Jean-Pierre Hannequart
Gulledelle 100 - 1200 Brussels

Brussels Belgium

Tel. 32 2 775 76 02 - Fax 32 2 775 76 05 - E-mail: jph@ibgebim.be

New waste plan: focus on prevention
O 5,250,000 for prevention
Brussels’ waste management plan for the period 1998-2002 earmarks F 5,250,000
for a programme aimed at source prevention of generation of waste and home
composting. The objective is to reduce the amount of waste generated by 10% by the
year 2002. An observatory of sustainable consumption and of environmental
labelling has also been set up in co-operation with consumer defence associations
for informing the public about logos, labels, environmentally friendly products, etc.
Local action involving the public is essential to the project, which is provided by the
creation of a team of local advisors, initially composed of five members.
Initial activities
Communication campaigns aimed at getting messages about prevention across to the
public are planned. The first general campaign used the slogan «Buy wisely and
throw less away». It will be followed by targeted media campaigns on particular
themes, such as «Say no to disposable bags». A free weekly newsletter entitled «A minimum of waste – we can do it!» provides advice and information about the
various programmes conducted by Brussels. Other documents are also available,
including a practical brochure: «Ten tips for halting the proliferation of waste».
Circular advertising is another major target. Residents are given stickers to affix on
their mailboxes indicating that they do not want to receive this advertising. The
objective is to reduce the distribution of free printed matter by 20% thanks to these
stickers, which are recognised by distribution companies.
Another important focus is home composting. Volunteer «composting masters» will
be trained to help their friends and neighbours compost successfully and to promote
composting in schools and associations.
Pilot projects involving an apartment block, a few families or a neighbourhood are
also under way to test advice on prevention of waste or home composting and
should result in constant improvements to the programme.
Brussels is also concerned about verifying the results achieved. An observatory is
being established and will use statistical methods and actual weighing of waste
produced by groups of reference households to determine how much progress has
been made.

Moins de déchets!
Minder afval!

Analysis of the composition of
household waste, based on the
REMECOM Charter
Special household waste 1%
Metal 4%
Glass 7%
Other 22%
Plastic 10%
Textile hygiene
products 8%
Textiles 2%
Composites 2%
Cardboard 5%

Organic 25%

Paper 14%

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Paper and cardboard 15,572

16,3

4,6

Other multi-material 6,079

6,4

2

8

2,2

1

0,3

32

9

Local drop-off
Glass

7,573

Centralised drop-off
Paper
Total

983

City Carpi
Country Italy
Population 60,200
Households 25,000
Area 13,156 km2
Type of development Urban, semi-rural, rural
Contact person CSR - Gian Franco Saetti

Media-Com _6

Via Meloni Di Quartirolo14, I - 41012 Carpi (MO)
Tel.: 39 059 645 105 - Fax: 39 059 621 224 - E-mail: conscsr@tin.it

Quality targeted collection of organic waste

To reduce the quantity of waste landfilled, an experimental campaign for the
collection of organic waste has been launched in the municipality of Mirandola. The
city first organised biweekly door-to-door collection of organic waste from
restaurants and small enterprises. It also launched a pilot experiment in which
residents voluntarily dropped off their organic household waste. Families
participating in the programme are given a small plastic rubbish bin, a quantity of
biodegradable maize paper bags and a key. They carry their bags of organic waste to
special brown containers placed strategically throughout the city. To ensure the
quality of the organic matter thus collected, the containers are locked and are
accessible only to people with a key given exclusively to those who follow the rules
of the experiment.

80%
60%
40%
20%

Recycling 6,5%

A key for composting

100%

Composting 6,5%

The area of Carpi has entrusted its environmental management activities to the CSR,
a waste management consortium active in 17 municipalities in the northern portion
of the province of Modena, constituting a population of 170,000.

Destination of municipal
waste collected
Landfill 87%

Carpi Italy

This method of collection is still in the experimental stages and involves only 3,500
residents. They have access to about 40 containers, or one container per 85
residents. These containers have a capacity of 1,700 litres and are emptied three
times a week. All the organic waste collected in this manner, along with sludge from
the water purification system, is transported to the regional composting centre.
Carpi plans to extend the scheme to the entire city by 2001, with a network of 300
brown containers.
New life for old appliances
Other initiatives focus on collection of old appliances, either door-to-door or in
container parks. The appliances are dismantled, with the metal being separated for
recycling and all reusable parts from radiators, fans and other household appliances
recovered and sold. This type of collection has provided jobs for about 20
unemployed people. It also provides a partial solution to the problem of hazardous
waste such as freon from refrigerators, which are transported to a processing facility
equipped to handle them. In 1997, 89 tonnes of household appliances, amounting to
1.5 kilos per resident, were collected. Only a fraction of this type of waste that
cannot be recovered ends up in a landfill.

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

All types of collection combined
Paper

1,121

18,6

3,3

Cardboard

375

6,2

1,1

Glass

1,049

17,4

3,1

Plastic

195

3,2

0,6

Wood

167

2,7

0,5

Organic waste

1,582

26,2

4,7

206

3,4

0,6

3,5

0,6

81

14,5

Local drop-off
Organic waste

Centralised drop-off
Metal

213

(except packaging)

Total

City Dublin
Country Ireland
Population 481,854
Households 173,085
Area 144 km2
Contact person Dublin Corporation Civic Offices - Lawrence Rochford

Media-Com _7

Fishamble Street - Dublin 8
Tel.: 353 1 679 61 11 - Fax: 353 1 679 30 54

Dublin Ireland
A new waste plan in sight
The City of Dublin has developed a draft plan for waste management that will
completely change its citizens’ habits! The city has set itself ambitious goals,
including putting a stop to growth in production of waste, significantly increasing
the rate of recycling, the introduction of energy recovery and a reduction in the
amount of waste landfilled from the current 90%.
Measures focusing resolutely on prevention
This plan sets out objectives, year by year until 2010, for reduction in the production
of household, commercial and industrial waste. For the past few months, the City of
Dublin has been conducting an information campaign targeting consumers.
A brochure distributed to households is intended to increase their awareness of how
to reduce the production of waste at the source. It sets out «golden rules» for
responsible consumption aimed at limiting waste, the purchase of more
environmentally friendly products and includes a list of alternatives to disposable
products as well as advice on repairing used products instead of throwing them away.
Objective: waste sorting, recycling and composting
Dublin also has ambitious goals for sorting of waste and intends to provide separate
door-to-door collection of dry recyclable waste for 80% of the population. The draft
plan provides for separation at the source of hazardous household and commercial
waste and the introduction of collection of sorted organic waste for 80 to 90% of the
population. The plan also lays down targets for recycling and recovery that vary
according to the origin of the waste in question. By 2004, 60% of household waste
should be recycled and 39% incinerated, leaving only 1% to be landfilled. The City
subscribes to the REMECOM Charter and uses the MODECOM method to assess the
results of sorting schemes.
These projects fall within the framework of Ireland’s national strategy, which provides
for a reduction in quantities of waste landfilled by means of the construction of
facilities for collection, sorting and recycling of waste, the processing of organic
waste in centralised composting or biological digestion facilities, and the
construction of incineration facilities equipped with an energy recovery system. The
scale of fees for waste disposal will be revised with a view to financing investment
and to promoting minimisation of waste and a higher recycling rate.

Breakdown of composition of
household waste using
the MODECOM method
Other 12%
Special household
waste 1%
Metal 4%

Organic 33%

Glass 6%
Plastic 12%
Textile hygiene
products 4%
Textiles 3%
Composites 1%
Cardboard 4%

Paper 20%

Collection of recyclables
1996/97

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Recyclable waste

1,865

3,8

1

2,564

5,3

1,5

9

2,5

Local drop-off
Recyclable waste

Total

City Fiumicino
Country Italy
Population 50.178
Area 213 Km2
Type of development Urban, residential, rural
Contact person Consorzio Agrital Ricerche - Stefano Carrano

Media-Com _8

Viale dell'Industria, 24 - 00057 Maccarese (RM)
Tel.: 39 06 6678357 - Fax: 39 06 6678312 - E-mail: posta@agrital.ccr.it

Fiumicino Italy
Keeping waste production under control

Percentage of recyclables
in municipal waste

A new municipality active in environmental management

Metal

Glass

5

Textiles

10

Composites

15

Cardboard

20

Plastic

25

Paper

An essential factor in the resolution of urban environmental problems is the ongoing
control of the production of waste with a view to averting resource management
problems and errors as concerns the scale of sorting schemes. In 1995, the
municipality of Fiumicino therefore decided to participate in the European REMECOM
project for monitoring of production of locally produced waste. The municipality was
created in 1993, by separation from the city of Rome, and up to that time no indepth inquiry had been conducted into the quality and quantity of waste produced
locally. Development in the area is very diverse and includes urban centres,
residential developments, rural communities, villages and large agricultural spaces
which together generate various economic activities (third sector, fishing, farming
and industry) to form a heterogeneous and highly differentiated panorama of waste
production. The need for an in-depth study was urgent, and the municipality
decided to co-finance the REMECOM project with additional funding for a study of
guidelines for sorting, to be commissioned from the Consorzio Agrital Ricerche.

Composition of municipal waste
Metal 4%
Glass 5%

The importance of the REMECOM method

Other 24%

Various Fuels 10%

Participation in the REMECOM meant a great deal to the municipality and to
Fiumicino's environmental service, both of which are deeply involved in the issues
the project addresses. The goal was to increase public awareness by bringing
together outside advisors, deputies to the Mayor and the Mayor himself at
international meetings on the themes of the environment, and organising local press
conferences.

Paper 12%

Organic Waste 17%
Cardboard 13%
Plastic 15%

The results of the study conducted using the REMECOM methodology gave the
municipality a means of redefining its solid waste disposal and sorting services and
led in 1989 to a revolution in systems of collection thanks to new side-loading
containers for voluntary drop-off that greatly reduced the need for time and
manpower. A sorting scheme, initially limited to glass, was introduced along with
new containers: blue «multi-material» recipients (for glass, cans and plastic bottles)
and white containers for paper.
New processing facilities
Work recently began on a facility for composting of organic waste with a capacity of
88 tonnes a day and capable of producing high-quality compost. The facility should
be completed in 2000 and is located at the heart of the bio-agri-food technology
centre. Not only does the production of compost help to reduce the quantity of
waste to be disposed of; it also helps to protect the environment as concerns
biological cycles.

1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Voluntary drop-off
Waste

32,231

492

99

Glass

264

4

1

496

100

Total

Media-Com _9

City Hanover
Country Germany
Population 522,124
Area 204 km2
Type of development Urban
Contact person ARGUS - Juergen Gonser
Einsteinufer, 25 – 10587 Berlin
Tel.: 49 3031 422588 – Fax: 49 30 314 21131 - E-mail: jgonser@mail.cs.tu-berlin.de

Hanover Germany

-Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Hanover (Waste Management Services of Hanover) - Astrid Franssen
Karl-Wiechert-Allee 60c - 30625 Hanover
Tel.: 49 511 168 47986 – Fax: 49 511 198 47982

The new millennium opens with the start of operation of a
large centre for mechanical and biological processing of solid
municipal waste

Glass

0,2

Composites

0,4

Metal

0,6

Plastic

0,8
Cardboard

In Hanover, as everywhere in Germany, the need to reduce the amount of solid
municipal waste requiring disposal is given top priority. Information and awareness
campaigns target the citizens, starting at the end of compulsory schooling.
Experiments aimed at reducing the amount of waste produced in schools have been
introduced with the economic incentive of payment for reductions in the quantities
of waste requiring either collection or disposal.

1

Paper

Education for a responsible lifestyle

Packaging types as percentage
of waste

Sorting begins at home
Hanover has also focused on waste recycling services for many years and began to
collect sorted paper nearly 20 years ago. Today, sorted waste is collected up once a
week from single-family dwellings and from 1 m3 blue containers located in
apartment blocks.

Composition of municipal waste

Other 17%

A yellow bag is distributed to each household for the collection of packaging waste
and is exchanged for an empty bag once every two weeks. Glass recycling requires
voluntary drop-off at containers for green, brown and clear glass strategically
located throughout the city.

Organic waste 26%

Metal 3%
Plastic 5%
Cardboard 6%

Organic waste has been collected since 1966, under a scheme that has gradually
been extended to the entire city, by means of brown containers for «green» waste.
A common container is emptied once every two weeks and the contents transported
to the municipal composting centre.

Glass 16%

Paper 27%

However, the most significant results have been achieved thanks to the
processing and sorting centre. Hanover's pride will be a gigantic facility for
mechanical/biological sorting and processing of residual waste. This facility, one of
the largest and most modern in Germany, is under construction. An information and
awareness event open to the public took place in July 1999 to mark the start of
earthworks on a 9 hectare site. The sorting facility will be completed by 2000, and
the associated biological processing facility will come on line in 2001.
Once fully operational, the centre will be able to process each year 90,000 tonnes of
household residual waste, 15,000 tonnes of sludge and 16,000 tonnes of waste from
street cleaning. The biological processing section will handle up to 160 tonnes of
organic waste a day, producing high-quality compost. With this facility, Hanover will
top the list of cities known for their focus on recycling.
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Voluntary drop-off
Glass

19,450

37,3

9,1

Door-to-door pickup
Municipal waste

136,296

261

66,1

Paper/Cardboard

37,671

68,3

17,4

Light packaging

8,512

16,3

4,2

Organic waste

6,500

12,4

3,2

395,3

100

Total

City Helsinki
Country Finland
Population 930,000
Households 450,000
Area 740 km2
Type of development Urban, semi-rural
Contact person Executive Waste Adviser YTV Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council - Juha Uuksulainen

Media-Com _10

Waste Management Department - Opastinsilta 6 A - 00520 Helsinki
Tel.: 358 9 156 1316 - Fax: 358 9 156 1248 - E-mail: juha.uuksulainen@ytv.fi

Reducing the amount of waste landfilled

60
45

Counting on prevention
30

YTV, a joint organisation of four municipalities, has for the past several years been
engaged in measures to promote prevention of generation of waste, with the
publication of addresses where appliances and other items can be repaired,
organising events without the use of disposable dishes, encouraging the use of nondisposable nappies, provision of information over the Internet and in brochures
distributed to households and SMEs. Nine prevention officers provide 1,200 hours of
information a year in schools, childcare centres, companies and associations, and
marionette shows are held in schools and childcare centres. In autumn 1999, YTV
has launched a new prevention programme targeting households and SMEs in
cooperation with the Finnish Environment Institute. This programme has received
financial support from the European LIFE programme.

15
0

Landfill 45%

Incinerators are rather unwelcome in Finland, which has only one facility of this
type. Since three of its landfills were closed in 1986 and 1987, Helsinki is left with
only the Ämmässuo landfill for disposing of its waste. The city thus has an incentive
to prevent waste generation and landfilling.

Destination of municipal
waste collected

Recycling + composting 55%

Helsinki Finland

Recycling: a way of life
Many types of waste are collected separately: hazardous waste, glass, cardboard and
metals are picked up from containers distributed throughout the city. Used
appliances and other objects are collected periodically and some are repaired and sold
to bric-à-brac dealers and second-hand shops. Only about 10% of the glass bottles
sold are collected in glass containers as in Finland, a deposit is charged on many
containers for spirits, beers and soft drinks, and 83% of glass bottles are reused.
Paper, cardboard and organic waste is collected door-to-door. Offices are required to
separate white paper from other paper waste, and in buildings with more than ten
apartments, households are required to separate paper from organic waste, which is
not collected separately from smaller buildings or in neighbourhoods with
composting facilities. The objective of YTV is to recycle 60% of organic waste by the
year 2000.
A pay as you throw policy encourages households to separate waste: costs vary
depending on the size of rubbish bins, their location and the frequency of
collection. The fee for collection of organic waste is two times lower than for
unsorted waste.

1998

Selective Collection (in tonnes)

Paper-Cardboard

159,000

Glass

8,484

Plastic

n.d.

Metal

59,800

Cans

646

Drink cartons

840

Wood

31,300

Hazardous waste

1,600

Organic waste

27,200

Tyres

3,352

Media-Com _11

City Hurepoix Association
Country France
Population 83,493
Area 417.5 km2
Type of development Urban, residential, rural
Contact person SICTOM Hurepoix - Louis Dejean
Rue Reymond Laubier, 5 – 91410 Dourdan
Tel.: 33 1 6459 8989 – Fax: 33 1 6459 3396

Hurepoix France

Glass

12

8

«Education» concerning sorting

4

The sorting scheme focuses on three main materials: glass, newspapers/magazines
and packaging, all of which are collected door-to-door. Waste lots for glass and
newspapers/magazines also exist. The containers used for this collection system are
small boxes the content of which is visible. When the project first began, nonstandard boxes were not picked up, and a list of materials that could be deposited in
the box would be left as part of the process of «educating» the public about sorting.
Dual-compartment containers make it now possible to collect two types of material
(newspapers/magazines and household waste or glass and packaging) simultaneously.

2

Composites

6

Metal

10

Plastic

Cardboard

Located to the southwest of Paris, the Hurepoix SICTOM (Inter-municipal Association
for Collection and Processing of Household Waste - 36 municipalities, 83,493
inhabitants) was one of the first «packaging recycling» pilot sites of its size to
implement separate collections of a certain number of materials with a view to
materials recovery. The breakdown of its housing stock (25% collective, 75%
individual houses) classifies this SICTOM as «urban» and thus requiring particular
provisions as regards containers and frequency of collection.

Percentage of packaging present
in municipal waste

Paper

One of the first packaging recycling pilot sites

Composition of municipal waste

Paper 14%

Future or objective: organic matter and individual composters

Organic 21%
Metal 5%

Of the individual houses, 2/3 are offered door-to-door collection of organic matter.
This service will eventually be extended to all individual houses, with a view to
reducing significantly of unsorted waste. The containers must be improved (the
open plastic bags currently in use should be replaced by compostable paper bags).
Moreover, one home out of ten has its own composter and the number is increasing
each year.

Cardboard 9%
Plastic 12%

Other 26%

Glass 13%

A 24% divertion rate
The SICTOM wants to take its strategy even further. Major future projects include the
construction of a network of six waste lots throughout the district by 2001,
individual monitoring of the quantities of waste produced by craft and commercial
activities with a view to the introduction of a special fee and experiments in sorting
of bulky objects.
Communication
Since the project began, communication has been the tool used to increase
residents’ awareness of the various collection systems on offer (via public meetings,
programmes in the schools, a quarterly information bulletin and an annual letter
presenting the results of the project). After several years of operation, an ever
greater complementarity is emerging between residents’ efforts to pre-sort waste and
increasingly specific collection requirements, with the goal of constantly improving
the efficiency of the system and the quality of sorted materials.

1997/98

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Drop-off
Newspaper

190

2,27

0,53

Glass

447

5,35

1,24

Door-to-door collection
Municipal waste

26,412

316,54

73,84

Paper/Cardboard

1,381

16,55

3,87

Light packaging

2,346

28,11

6,55

Glass

2,188

26,22

6,12

Vegetable matter

2,805

33,61

7,85

428.68

100

Total

Media-Com _12

City Jerez de la Frontera
Country Spain
Population 182,000
Area 1,389 km2
Type of development Semi-rural, rural
Contact person Aguas de Jerez - Ignacio Muñoz
Calle Cadiz, n° 1 - E – 11402 Jerez de la Frontera
Tel.: 34 956 35 95 00 - Fax: 34 956 35 95 01

Jerez de la Frontera Spain

E-mail: comunicacion.ajemsa@aytojerez.es

A new plan for integrated waste management
In 1995, the City of Jerez entrusted municipal enterprise Aguas de Jerez not only
with rubbish collection, but also the development of a programme of collection of
sorted waste, the key to a future plan for integrated waste management. This plan
was intended to culminate in the construction of an integrated processing facility to
handle the 260,000 tonnes of household waste produced each year by the 25
municipalities in the Jerez Region and to separate out recyclable and compostable
waste.
Aguas de Jerez also began to invest in compactors for hospitals, shopping centres
and other locations where large amounts of waste are produced with the aim of
reducing the amount of waste to be transported, streamlining transport and
decreasing the visual impact of waste.
A network of special containers
Household waste is not collected door-to-door, but via a network of 2,800 brown or
green containers in which residents can deposit their bags of rubbish. Paper/cardboard
and glass are also collected separately in a network of special containers.
Used batteries and medicines may be deposited in containers located in shops and
pharmacies. Batteries are then destroyed or stored safely. Four separate entities are
responsible for the collection, transport, sorting and disposal of medicines and for
public information campaigns. Unexpired medicines are sent to developing countries.
Residents may telephone to request collection of bulky waste, and agricultural
plastics and old tyres are also picked up separately.
One of the main thrusts of the programme, the collection of organic waste, is being
introduced gradually. The waste collected is added to sewage sludge to produce
better-quality compost.
Partnership agreements with packaging producers
The City has signed an agreement with «Ecoembalajes España» facilitating
application of the national law on packaging. This agreement is intended to promote
sorting programmes and introduce door-to-door collection in the centre of Jerez.
The first phase of implementation of the agreement will involve the development of
a pilot project for collection of packaging from about 10,000 residents. The results of
this project will be used in developing future public information campaigns,
assessing costs and defining the best system of collection for light materials, to be
extended to the entire city, in a major step towards large-scale recycling.

Collection of recyclables
1998

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Organic waste

96

0,5

0,1

Bulky waste

1,000

5,5

1,1

Local drop-off
Paper-cardboard

1,399

7,7

1,5

Glass

851

4,7

0,9

Batteries (kg/year)

7,647

0,042

0,01

Medicines (kg/year) 8,190

0,045

0,01

Total

18,5

3,6

Leeds United Kingdom

City Leeds
Country UK
Population 727,500
Family units 293,000
Area 552 km2
Type of development Residential
Contact person Leeds University - John Barton
Woodhouse Laine - L 52 7ut Leeds
Tel.: 44 11 32 33 2278 - Fax: 44 11 32 33 2265
E-mail: cenjrb@CIVIL.leeds.ac.uk

86,000 family units given containers for sorting waste

Percentage of recyclables in
municipal waste

A dual scheme: strategically planned kerbside and mini-sites
In considering recycling rates, it should be noted that roughly the third of the City
population (86,000 households) is already served by the multi-material kerbside
scheme (SORT). Paper is by far the largest component recovered (70 % of the
recyclable material collected) and collection efficiencies of up to 70% are achieved.
Plastic and metal packaging items make up the other targeted materials (glass is
collected by drop-off facilities), but recovery efficiencies for these products tend to
be much lower (35 to 50%). The paper-only collection route scheme, introduced for
20,000 householders in the spring of 1999, uses a sack-based collection method and
represents an attempt to achieve similar diversion rates (10 to 15%) at much lower
cost for the participating householders. Drop-off sites include 11 large managed
multi-material Civil Amenity Sites (many offering separate containers for garden
waste, inert rubble, glass, paper, card, metals, paint, textiles, books as well as for
general bulky waste disposal) and 300 (1 per 1,000 households) unmanned minirecycling sites located at supermarkets/ roadsides / car parks (mainly for glass and
paper). A further 50 mini-sites are planned for over the next two years and the Civic
Amenity sites are being progressively upgraded to increase the range of recycling
possibilities available. Facilities for segregating and composting garden waste
through these sites in particular will be expanded.

10

4
2

Plastic

6

Composites

Cardboard

8

Paper

Leeds City Council has long been in the forefront in the provision of services to
residents for kerbside and drop-off recycling. In the 1980’s, the city was commended
for its extensive network of drop-off sites, and in the early 1990’s Leeds established
one of the first multi-material kerbside schemes supported by a materials recovery
facility in the UK. The last five years have seen steady expansion of both systems
along with new initiatives to support home composting and routes for paper-only
collection in areas not served by the multi-material kerbside scheme. Locally, rather
high recycling rates are achieved. Taking into account the whole population, the
average recycling note is 8 % - the same as UK average. All household waste not
recycled is currently sent via two road transfer stations to landfill sites located
outside the city boundary in neighbouring areas.

Glass

The first experiments for better service

Metal

Media-Com _13

Composition of municipal waste

Other 22%

Organic waste 30%

Hygiene
products 4%
Non-combustible
material 6%
Plastic 7%
Glass 10%

Paper 21%

Education remains fundamental
Promotion of home composting to minimise waste for disposal is being continued via
subsidies for the purchase of composting bins. It is estimated that some 45,000
households in Leeds now compost their garden and kitchen waste.
The Council is very aware of the need to promote recycling schemes and contribute
to improving awareness through educational initiatives.

1997/98

T./year

Kg/household %

Municipal waste
Municipal waste

43,622

206,54

79,44

Sorted waste
Paper

7,583

10,41

13,8

Glass

2,108

2,89

3,87

Metal

580

0,79

1,05

Cardboard

526

0,71

0,95

Plastic

493

0,67

0,89

260

100

Total

City Lille
Country France
Population 1,067,345
Households 387,065
Area 611 km2
Type of development Urban, semi-rural and rural
Contact person Lille Métropole Communauté Urbaine - Paul Deffontaine

Media-Com _14

1, rue du Ballon, BP 749 - 59034 Lille Cedex

Lille France

Tel. 33 3 20 21 21 88 - Fax 33 3 20 21 24 05

Combining the objectives of recycling and job placement

Destination of municipal
waste collected

80%

20%

An experiment in composting
In May 1998, Lille launched an individual composting experiment involving 100
volunteer households. Families have been provided, free of charge, with a composter
with a capacity of 300, 600 or 900 litres, along with directions for use. City officials
are also available to furnish any other necessary information.
An initiative to promote employment
At the TRISELEC-Lille sorting centre, social economy is a key element in waste
management: a placement programme helps the unemployed return to work by
means of employment solidarity contracts, along with measures to improve both
qualifications and morale. With the exception of a few permanent employees who
keep the centre operating, all the workers are expected to look for a job in addition
to their work at TRISELEC. The jobs on offer vary from sorting operator to quality
assistant, who examines the composition of samples from the sorting line, to
workshop coordinator. Since 1993, about 270 people have been hired on the basis of
a part-time, fixed-term contract for six months with an option to renew.
The experiment has proved a success, with a job placement rate of over 60%.

Recycling 6%

40%

Composting 3%

60%

Other 1%

100%

Landfill 27%

In 1991, Lille introduced a pilot waste-sorting scheme involving 2,400 residents.
Based on an analysis of the initial results, changes were made to the programme, in
particular as concerns the frequency of collection and containers used, as well as the
types of waste collected. In the early stages, the sorting scheme applied only to
individual residences. In 1993, the Lille Urban Community introduced sorting into
apartment blocks and opted for a definitive scenario in 1994. The scheme was
gradually extended, 100,000 residents at a time, beginning in the city centre and
moving towards peripheral areas, and applied to more than 450,000 residents in
1999. The development of sorting schemes was accompanied by a wide-ranging
information campaign, using circulars in particular. «Awareness teams» criss-crossed
the areas concerned and «Sorting Info Buses» provided information on public
squares and in schools, for example. The natural history museum served as a forum
for education and is home to a permanent exhibit on the problem of waste.

Incineration 63%

A step by step approach

Breakdown of composition
of household waste using
the MODECOM method

Other 22%

Organic 26%

Special household
waste 1%
Metal 3%
Glass 13%
Plastic 9%

Paper and
Cardboard 19%
Composites 1%
Textiles 6%

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Paper and cardboard 8,770

8

Multi-material

13,791

13

1,5
2,3

Organic

15,035

14

2,5

Local drop-off
Paper

5,076

4,7

0,8

Glass

9,188

8,6

1,5

Centralised drop-off
Organic

6,359

6

1

Dry recyclables

3,464

3,2

0,6

57,5

10,2

Total

Media-Com _15

City Milton Keynes
Country UK
Population 200,700
Households 83,000
Area 31,000 Ha
Type of development Urban, semi rural
Contact person Civic Offices Saxon Gate - Andy Hudson
East Central Milton Keynes MK9 3 HN
Tel. 44 1908 25 25 77 - Fax 44 1908 25 24 72 - E-mail: andy.hudson@milton-keynes.gov.uk

The keys to active citizen participation

100%
80%
60%

Recycling 14%

Located between London and Birmingham, Milton Keynes is the last and the largest
of the cities created in the United Kingdom after the Second World War. As a fastgrowing municipality, Milton Keynes quickly realised the potential environmental as
well as economic benefits of effective waste management and in 1982 set up the
Community Recycling Opportunities Programme (CROP), an NGO with the goal of
creating jobs thanks to recycling. In 1990, the city introduced a pilot project for
door-to-door collection of recyclable waste, and 5,600 households received plastic
containers: a red one for newspapers and magazines and a blue one for cans and
glass and plastic bottles. This initiative, based on voluntary citizen participation,
proved so successful that in 1992 (one year earlier than planned), the collection
system was extended to the entire population, including people living in rural areas.
This success justified the opening in 1993 of the Milton Keynes Materials Recycling
Facility (MRF). In 1994, the sorting scheme was enlarged to include boxes,
telephone directories and textiles, which are collected in the red container.

Destination of municipal
waste collected
Lanfill 86%

Milton Keynes United Kingdom

40%
20%

A transparent system, accessible to all
Starting with the pilot project, Milton Keynes emphasised provision of information
to the public. The system is transparent and the MRF employs a full-time education
and training officer to work mainly with schools, but also with local groups and
businesses. The centre has a permanent information centre and a gallery where
visitors can observe the MRF's activities in complete safety. The effort put into
communication has resulted in a high rate of voluntary participation (76% of
citizens) and enables the sorting centre to work on loads of very high quality waste.
Only 4% of waste collected under the sorting scheme is residue that has to be
landfilled. The city is also developing sites where the public can dispose of old
household appliances. These centres recover CFCs from refrigerators and separate
metals for recycling.
New projects in the offing
Thanks to this programme, Milton Keynes has been able to keep 24% of household
waste out of landfills. The city intends to improve on these results by promoting
individual composting and establishing a composting centre. Another target:
nappies, which account for 6% of the total volume of waste. In October 1999, the
city launched a campaign to promote a privately operated nappy-washing service.
The new waste management strategy for the period 2000-2010 has been developed
in direct co-operation with the public, which was consulted by means of
questionnaires (more than 3,000 responses have been received), meetings with
neighbourhood committees and round tables bringing together local people and
experts for debates.

Collection of recyclables
1997/98

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Multi-material

10,163

51

12

1,049

5

1

10

2

66

15

Local drop-off
Multi-material

Centralised drop-off
Various recyclables
Total

1,970

City Munich
Country Germany
Population 1,307,609
Households 722,954
Area 310 km2
Type of development Urban
Contact person Amt für Abfallwirtschaft - Günther Langer

Media-Com _16

Sachsenstrasse, 25 - 81543 Munich
Tel.: 49 89 233 319 20 - Fax: 49 89 233 319 02

Prevention and composting: the two pillars of Munich's waste strategy

100%
80%

Composting 6%

60%
40%

In 1991, the city created a municipal waste advisory service. Encouraged by the
success of this first initiative, the City set up a five-person «waste avoidance» team
in 1993. This group is responsible for taking initiatives to prevent waste generation
at the source and giving impetus to waste reduction efforts. The team developed a
service for the hire of reusable dishes and cutlery as well as dishwashers for parties
and small public events. A ban on disposable cutlery, dishes and glasses at large
events was introduced. After some hesitation on the part of organisers, attitudes
began to change and most now support this initiative. School food services have
replaced single-use cans and bottles with reusable containers.

20%

Landfill 2%

A team of prevention advisers

Recycling 25%

In Munich, provision of information and promotion of awareness of the problem of
waste are considered the best means of preventing production of waste at the
source. Consequently, they constitute an essential aspect of Munich's strategy, and
since 1991, the City has launched various campaigns using media such as brochures,
advertising at the cinema, posters, audiocassettes and music videos.

Destination of municipal
waste collected

Incineration 67%

Munich Germany

In 1997-98, Munich launched a campaign to change purchasing and consumption
habits and holds information sessions on the repair and restoration of used goods.
Offices and shops are also targeted. The goal is to create a genuine dialogue on the
topic of prevention, between urban authorities and all the actors concerned
producers, consumers, manufacturers' associations and other groupings.
The City has also launched a programme to promote reusable washable nappies with
the aim of reducing the quantity of nappies disposed of. Since the programme began
in 1996, 650 families have joined each year.
Composting pays
Munich has also opted for individual composting: people interested in producing
their own compost receive a subsidy of 1 40 from the City for the purchase of
individual composting equipment.

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Paper

69,302

53

14

Organic

17,254

13

3,5

Local drop-off
Paper and cardboard 12,230

9,3

2,5

Multi-material

27,5

7,2

36,080

(except paper)

Centralised drop-off
Garden waste

13,402

10

2,6

Multi-material

15,021

11,5

3

124

33

Total

City Porto
Country Portugal
Population 400.000
Area 144 km2
Type of development Urban
Contact person Lipor - Fernando Leite

Media-Com _17

P.O. Box, 1 - P-4446 Ermesinde codex
Tel. 351 2 975 74 53 - Fax 351 2 975 60 38 - E-mail: fleite@lipor.pt

Porto Portugal
As recycling pioneers in Portugal, Porto and the surrounding
area receive Cohesion Fund aid
Porto and the surrounding area constitute a region undergoing rapid development
and endowed with an undeniable cultural and historical heritage. It is along the
banks of the River Douro that the delectable Porto wines are aged. But the region
also has some 890,000 residents whose production of waste is increasing significantly
as the region develops economically. Waste production is expected to grow from
397,000 tonnes in 1994 to 497,000 tonnes in 2000, i.e., by 25% in six years.
Environmentally safe processing of this waste and more particularly its recycling,
composting and recovery constitute a major challenge to LIPOR, the inter-municipal
organisation responsible for waste management. The strategy chosen by LIPOR firmly
rejects putting all waste into landfills. Based on a detailed analysis of the current
situation as concerns production of waste, its composition and probable trends as
concerns quality and quantity, this strategy aims to develop methods of collection
suitable to different local situations. LIPOR has thus designated areas where waste
will be dropped off voluntarily at local containers and others where it will be
collected door-to-door, and also plans to establish 21 container parks.
Significant European support
The dry recyclable waste-sorting centre opened in June 1999 is an essential
component of this system. While it can handle more than 30,000 tonnes of
recyclables each year, specifically paper and packaging of all types of materials,
using the most advanced methods, it also takes into account workers' aspirations in
the areas of education and welfare. The centre further operates a job placement
programme. The comprehensive nature of this waste management strategy
introduced in Porto and the surrounding area has probably contributed to European
authorities' decision to provide financial support. The European Cohesion Fund will
cover 85% of the necessary investment of around 1 75 million.
Citizen participation, the key to success
However, a 20-fold increase in the amount of waste recycled in the space of a few
years cannot simply be decreed. Public participation is crucial to the success of the
project, as the local authorities who incorporate concerns about prevention of
generation of waste into awareness campaigns targeting the public, school children
and companies have recognised. An exhibition entitled «O Lixo Passou A Historia»
organised by the Office of the Mayor of Porto in June 1999 reflects this
determination by offering simple and realistic practical advice for avoiding the
generation of waste. Art was also an important part of this exhibition; background
music was played on instruments crafted out of waste. Craftsmanship was
represented as well, in the form of lamps created out of discarded objects.

Objectives for the year 2000:
to increase the rate of recycling
from 1% to 21%
Recycling of materials:
8%
Composting:
13%
Incineration with energy recovery: 79%

Media-Com _18

City Rome
Country Italy
District 11th
Population 140.749
Area 47.3 km2
Type of development Urban
Contact person AMA - Daniele Morettini - Leopoldo d’Amico
Via Calderon de la Barca, 87 – 00142 Roma

Rome–11th District Italy

Tel.: 39 06 51 69 2334 – Fax: 39 06 51 69 2354 - E-mail: daniele.morettini@amaroma.it
Tel.: 39 06 51 69 2475 – Fax: 39 06 51 69 2829 - E-mail: leopoldo.damico@amaroma.it

The objective in Rome: to recycle up to 70% of solid waste
A reduction in the volume of solid urban waste must be achieved by recycling and
home sorting. Rome participated in the REMECOM network for monitoring of solid
municipal waste via its city's association for the collection and disposal of waste, the
AMA. Rome has thereby been able to make a detailed survey of the qualitative and
quantitative production of waste in a test area of the city: the 11th district. This
neighbourhood was selected for a «life-size» study of citizens' response to campaigns
in favour of the more responsible behaviour necessary for the introduction of new
sorting schemes. The REMECOM methodology, thanks to its simple system of
calculation of the efficiency of sorting schemes, revealed citizens' positive response
to the practice of sorting and showed that in three years of experimentation,
citizens' average contribution to the quantity of waste sorted had increased by 59%.
These results indicate that the goal of recycling 70% of urban waste by 2005 is
indeed feasible.
Citizen education: a priority
To achieve these results, the AMA has been working on various fronts for the past
several years, in the belief that citizen awareness is of fundamental importance in
resolving environmental problems. The «AMA Scuola» project, introduced in 1996,
provided lessons on the themes of recycling and composting in 634 primary and
secondary schools. Composting experiments were conducted in 50 schools. Other
educational activities included decoration of waste containers in cooperation with
artistic high schools, construction of scale models of monuments out of aluminium,
public competitions on the theme of paper containers and the creation of a museum
of waste.

Composition of municipal waste
Various fuels 3%
Metal 3 %
Glass 7 %

Other 26 %

Plastic 10 %

New processing and collection facilities
Cardboard 10 %

On the practical side, the City has focused on designing and building new waste
processing, transport and disposal facilities. For example, a hospital waste
incinerator is already operating at Ponte Malnome, a facility for composting of waste
from businesses that will also conduct research into and testing of new technologies
is planned; plans are under way for an exchange centre for intermodal train + road
transport with a capacity of 1,000 tonnes of waste per day; and one new facility is
to be built to recycle construction demolition materials.

Paper 22%
Organic matter 19%

New associations for participation
The involvement of all partners in the environmental sector has been reinforced by
the creation of new associations for participation in the extermination of rats and
clean-up of urban areas, the elimination of graffiti and reprocessing of asbestos from
public and private buildings.
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Voluntary drop-off
Waste

61,250

435

Multi-material

1,922

13,6

92,4
2,89

Paper

2,651

18,8

3,99

Cardboard

66

0,5

0,09

Glass

398

2,8

0,6

470,7

100

Total

Media-Com _19

City Salzburg
Country Austria
Population 145,000
Households 66,000
Area 65.6 km2
Type of development Urban, semi-rural
Contact person Leiter des Abfallamtes Stadt Salzburg Rathaus - Winfried Herbst
Siezenheimerstrasse, 20 - A-5020 Salzburg - Tel.: 43 662 8072 4560 - Fax: 43 662 8072 4545
E-mail: winfried.herbst@stadt-salzburg.at - URL: http://www.stadt-salzburg.at

An approach based on weight and volume

50

Reliable deterrents …

20

Starting in 2004, a new law will prohibit landfilling of waste containing more than
5% organic matter or with a thermal value of more than 6,000 kJ/kg of dry matter.
A progressive tax on landfilling will contribute still further to discouraging this
practice. Since 1975, mixed waste collected door-to-door in the province of Salzburg
as well as sludge from flushing of the sewers has been sent to a biomechanical
treatment centre where, after processing, it is subjected to accelerated aerobic
decomposition for three weeks. This pre-treatment reduces the load in organic
matter and cuts volume by 20%. This system however needs to be optimised in order
for the City to meet the objectives it set itself or the standards that will come into
effect in 2004 for landfilling.

40
30

10

Recycling 21%

Austrian regulations on waste require municipalities to collect used oils,
construction waste, organic waste, fluorescent light bulbs, batteries, refrigerators,
small quantities of chemical waste, bulky waste and packaging separately. Paper and
cardboard, textiles and electrical and electronic appliances are also collected
separately on a large scale. Since 1993, the City of Salzburg has collected organic
waste door-to-door and promoted individual composting. The City does not provide
the composters, but everyone composting at home is eligible for a 15% reduction in
the tax on household waste collection.

Composting-Biomethanisation 20%

Landfill 56%

Destination of municipal
waste collected

Incineration 3%

Salzburg Austria

… to encourage prevention and recycling
Additionally, over the past several years, the City has stepped up its efforts to
prevent the production of and to recycle waste, in particular via awareness
campaigns aimed at changing consumers' behaviour. Residents of Salzburg received
a brochure listing craftspeople and workshops specialising in the repair and
restoration of furniture, household appliances, computers, toys, clothing, shoes,
sporting goods, bicycles and garden tools. It also lists shops selling second-hand
goods and environmentally friendly products. Residents may bring anything they
wish to dispose of to the recycling centre, which will separate the recyclable
materials. The City plans to take measures to encourage producers of electrical and
electronic appliances and cars to take more responsibility for collecting and recycling
these products after use.

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Organic

10,498

72

20

Glass

3,069

21

6

Metal

344

2

0,6

Plastic

892

6

1,7

Paper and cardboard 9,432

65

18

Total

166

46

Local drop-off

Centralised drop-off

City Stuttgart
Country Germany
Population 564,741
Households 272,439
Area 210 km2
Type of development Urban, residential
Contact person SIA – Michaël Waldbauer

Media-Com _20

Bandtaele, 1 – 70569 Stuttgart - Tel.: 49 711 6855456 – Fax: 49 711 6855460

Stuttgart Germany

E-mail: waldbauer@iswa.uni-stuttgart.de

Amt fur Abfallwirtschaft und Stadtreinigung – Gunter Lutz
Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart – Heinrich Baumann Str. 4 - 70569 Stuttgart
Tel.: 49 7112160 – Fax: 49 2163855

At the forefront of recycling
25 years of recycling awareness campaigns
The City of Stuttgart was one of the first municipalities to address environmental
problems in a rational and clear-sighted manner. Recycling and citizen education in
correct sorting of waste have been a priority since 1975. Action campaigns have
been conducted in the schools in an effort to make children aware of the need to
protect the environment. These included qualitative and quantitative analyses of
waste produced within school activity and studies concerning new strategies to
reduce the amount of waste generated. A theatre group has been promoting
recycling awareness since 1988.

Composition of light packaging

Iron 31%

Plastic 45%

A sorting system with global coverage
Selective collection of glass began in 1975 and was based on a voluntary drop-off
system. Since 1988, it has been expanded with the introduction of separate
containers for green, brown and clear glass.

Composites 17%
Aluminum 5%

Styrofoam 2%

Paper collection began in 1981, and «green campaigns» for the collection and
voluntary drop-off of paper and cardboard began in 1983.
In 1990, door-to-door collection of packaging was introduced. A yellow bag is
distributed free of charge to each household and is collected once every three
weeks. This system facilitates recycling of small household packaging waste: tins,
plastic bottles, yoghurt containers, «tetrapak» cartons and plastic and aluminium
trays, for example. This falls within the framework of the national recycling system
using the «green dot» symbol.
New strategies for waste reduction, such as home composting of kitchen and garden
waste, are now being tested, with the distribution of 874 specific containers since 1995.
Garden waste is collected in spring and autumn, as well as green waste from public
parks and cemeteries and are composted at a facility with a production capacity of
about 10,000 m3 a year. After the winter holidays, Christmas trees are also collected and
composted. The City also collects metal waste and end of life household appliances.

Composition of municipal waste
Plastic 5%
Hygiene products 7%
Other 23%
Various fuels 7%

Glass 11%

An example to emulate
Organic 20%

Cardboard 6%

In conclusion, the high level of participation and excellent response by its citizens
clearly demonstrate the feasibility of ambitious recycling policies.

Paper 21%

1996

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Voluntary drop-off
Glass

15,032

26,2

7,1

65,4

Door-to-door pickup
Municipal waste

137,597

244,7

Paper/Cardboard

46,399

82,5

22

Light packaging

11,487

20,4

5,5

374,3

100

Total

Media-Com _21

City The Hague
Country Netherlands
Population 442,183
Households 202,957
Area 6,800 Ha
Type of development Urban
Contact person Municipality of The Hague - Johan Van der Poel
Department of Public Works and Services - Spui 70, P.O. Box 12651 - 2500 DP The Hague
Tel. 31 70 353 64 55 - Fax 31 70 353 64 90 - E-mail: sbpoelj@dsb.denhaag.nl

Individual rubbish bins soon to be a thing of the past?

60%
40%
20%

Special wastes treatment 0,1%

80%

Composting15%

Local authorities are legally required to establish sorting schemes. The Hague began
sorting its waste in the early 1990s. Non-returnable glass bottles are collected in
aboveground containers located on the streets. New, more attractive and easier-touse containers have replaced the older type. In the historic centre of the City,
containers are located underground for aesthetic reasons. In the interests of greater
efficiency and lower costs, the city plans to replace door-to-door collection of nonrecyclable waste with a system of voluntary drop-off in containers placed
strategically throughout the city.

100%

Recycling 7%

The Netherlands is a highly urbanised country where space is at a premium.
The country's low altitude further leaves the groundwater, which lies very close to
the surface, particularly vulnerable to pollution. All these factors contributed to
awareness, early on, of environmental problems and the need to recycle waste to
avoid putting it into a landfill.

Destination of municipal
waste collected
Incineration 78%

The Hague Netherlands

Reuse, recycling, composting…
The Hague has spared no effort to promote recycling: the City has developed sorting
schemes for cardboard, textiles and household chemical waste. It has also reached
agreements with associations that repair or restore some types of bulky waste, such
as furniture or large appliances, for sales in second-hand shops.
In the Netherlands, garden waste and organic household waste account for some
35% of household waste by volume. In addition to individual composting, which is
encouraged by the distribution of individual composters, the City also organises
collection of organic waste for composting, thereby preventing landfilling, providing
a source of good quality compost for agriculture and horticulture and saving
considerable amounts of money, as composting is less expensive than incineration in
the new incinerator, equipped with a smoke scrubber, located in Rotterdam.
The City recently began to collect organic waste at the same time as unsorted waste
in a dual-compartment truck. This combined collection of two different waste flows
reduces the cost of collecting sorted waste.
… and jobs
A total of 230 people have been hired for the City's collection system.
Future projects will include a job placement programme and the creation of new jobs
in the area of recycling and reuse.

Collection of recyclables
1997

T./year

Kg/resident

%

Door-to-door
Organic

14,400

33

8

900

2

0,5

7,200

16

4

28

7

79

20

(«green» and food)
Textiles
Local drop-off
Glass

Centralised drop-off
Paper

12,600

and cardboard
Total

Media-Com _22

The Community regulatory context concerning
waste management
The European Union as the driving force behind an environmental policy
Protecting the environment is essential to economic growth and improved quality of
life: this factor was recognised as essential by the Heads of Government of the
European Community at the Paris Summit of July 1972. The stage was set for the
first Community Action Programme (1973-1976). Since then, the Single Act of 1987
and the entry into force of the European Union Treaty in 1993 have given a definite
impetus to European environment policy. How? First, by creating an explicit legal
basis and making the environment a component of other Community policies. Next,
by introducing the concept of sustainable development and the precautionary
principle, a policy that resulted, in the area of waste, in the adoption of two
strategies and several regulatory texts.
The Community waste management strategy

Structural Fund waste management plans

1. Principles

Directive 91/156 on waste stipulates in Article 7
that the Member States are required to produce
a waste management plan or plans defining a
strategy for achieving the objectives of the
Directive. These plans may be drawn up by the
competent authorities designated by the
Member States to implement the Directive.

In 1996, the Commission adopted a new strategy for waste management aimed at
extending and enhancing the main thrusts of the 1989 initiative. Its objective
was to provide a high level of environmental protection with a view to sustainable
development, without compromising the operation of the internal market.
Waste management plans
The Framework Directive requires the Member States to draft waste management
plans and to update them regularly. These plans are taken into account for the
provision of aid to the Member States via the Structural Funds.
Encouraging producers to take responsibility
Producer responsibility is at the core of the Commission's programme, as
illustrated by the Directive on waste and various Directives now at the draft
stage. The Commission emphasises the primary role the manufacturer plays in the
decision-making process; producers are to a large extent responsible for the
nature of products and processing options. The Commission also wants to increase
producers' contribution to the costs of processing of their products after use,
with the aim of integrating the environmental costs in terms of use of natural
resources and damage to the environment throughout the product cycle. The goal
is to use market mechanisms to achieve both environmental and economic
benefits.
The principles of self-sufficiency and proximity
The European Union has reaffirmed the need for adequate monitoring of waste
transfers. The Union does not want waste produced in one country of the Community
to be disposed of in another, and also wants waste to be disposed of in appropriate
facilities as close as possible to where it was produced. However, with rare
exceptions, the principle of proximity applies only to movements of waste intended
for disposal, and not to shipments of waste for recovery.

They must include information about the types,
quantities and origin of waste; on general
technical requirements, on provisions applicable
to household waste; and on sites and facilities
for disposal. They may also include the names of
natural or legal persons authorised to manage
waste, the costs of recovery and disposal
operations; measures to encourage streamlining
of collection, sorting and processing. Regulation
1260/1999 (Article 12) on the principle of
compatibility stipulates that activities receiving
Structural Fund aid must comply with
Community legislation.
The Commission Communication concerning the
Structural Funds and their coordination with
the Cohesion Fund – Guidelines for programmes
in the period 2000 to 2006 (OJEC
1999/C267/02) cites this obligation incumbent
on the Member States and provides that the
adoption of these waste management plans
should be a pre-condition for any Community
financing of waste management infrastructure.

Media-Com _23

2. Instruments

Directives and general Regulations

To achieve its objectives, the Commission wants to increase the number of tools
at its disposal, combining regulatory and economic instruments and voluntary
agreements. It also aims to improve the quality of statistics, by harmonising
currently discrepant definitions and classification systems. But harmonised
standards and regulations are also vital to the operation of the internal market.
Setting compulsory objectives for recycling or recovery sends a clear signal to
authorities and economic actors to help them develop their strategies.
By ensuring that market prices reflect the scarcity of natural resources and the
costs involved in production and management of waste, economic instruments
offer another fundamental tool. They encourage prevention of waste production
and recycling of waste and can improve the competitiveness of recycling in
relation to disposal. However, given the difficulty of defining a concerted course
of action at European level as concerns economic instruments, the Commission
also favours using voluntary agreements with the private sector, on the condition
that they are applied correctly and that application is enforced independently.

- Directive 75/442 on waste (amended by
91/156/CE, known as the framework Directive)
- Directive 91/689/CE on hazardous waste
- Decision 94/3/CE establishing a list of
types of waste
- Decision 94/904/CE establishing a list of
types of hazardous waste
- Regulation n° 259/93/CE concerning
monitoring and inspection of waste transfers
(adapted by 94/271/CE and 96/660/CE )

A hierarchy of management instruments
The European waste management strategy is based on a three-level hierarchical
classification.
Prevention
Waste issues must be taken into account starting with the design of products, with a
view to conserving raw materials and energy, reducing the production of waste and
making it less hazardous. The promotion of clean technologies and production,
reduction of the hazardousness of waste, promotion of reuse, eco-balance sheets,
eco-audits, product life cycle analyses and consumer information and education are
all necessary components of a waste prevention policy.

Directives on processing procedures
- Directive 89/369/EEC on new municipal
waste incineration facilities
- Directive 89/429/CE on existing municipal
waste incineration facilities
- Directive 94/67/CE on incineration of
hazardous waste
- Directive 99/31/CE on landfilling of waste

Directives on certain waste flows
- Directive 75/439/EEC on the disposal of
used oils (modified by 87/101/EEC )
- Directive 91/157/CE on batteries and
accumulators containing certain
hazardous materials
- Directive 94/62/CE on packaging and
packaging waste
- Directive 96/59/CE on the disposal
of PCBs and PCTs

Recovery
Draft Directives

Reuse should be given top billing, as it helps to avoid the use of new natural
resources and the production of new waste. Recycling is the next best method. In
addition to conserving materials and energy by eliminating the need to
manufacture a new product, recycling also reduces the amount of waste incinerated
in emissions-producing facilities. By encouraging sorting of waste at the source,
recycling also increases consumers' awareness of the need to reduce the production
of waste. In some cases, energy recovery is preferable for economic and
environmental reasons, but must not be harmful to the objectives of waste
prevention and recycling of materials.

- Draft Directive on end-of-life vehicles
(COM(99)176)
- Draft Directive on waste incineration
(COM(98)558)
- Draft Council Regulation on statistics on
waste management

Other initiatives have been
announced in the following areas

Final disposal
This term essentially refers to incineration without energy recovery and landfilling.
In principle, landfilling is considered a method of last resort and the least
desirable solution. It should be avoided as much as possible.
Consult the European Commission's website:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/waste/facts_en.htm

- Electrical and electronic equipment
- Batteries and accumulators
- Hazardous household waste
- Composting

Media-Com _24

The regulatory context in Italy

Prior to 1997, Italy lacked an integrated waste management system and waste
strategies focused almost exclusively on disposal rather than recovery of materials.
It had become obvious by this time that a new regulatory framework in line with
European standards, setting out specific objectives for each factor in the waste life
cycle, was urgently needed. Legislative Decree no. 22 of 5 February 1997, nicknamed
the «Ronchi Decree» for the Minister of the Environment responsible for it, aimed to
implement European Directives (on hazardous waste, packaging and packaging
waste), and to take an organic approach to all aspects of waste management and to
simplify the regulatory framework.

Percentages of waste to be collected
separately over the next three
years as required by
current Italian legislation
100%
80%
60%

The main innovations introduced by this legislation were as follows
40%

•Waste management, as an activity of public interest, must comply with the
principles of assumption of responsibility and cooperation by all the actors
involved in production, distribution, use and consumption of goods from which
waste is generated (Article 2, paragraph 3).
•Reuse, recycling and recovery of raw materials must be given preference in the
interests of correct waste management and to promote the reduction of
quantities of waste for final disposal (Article 4, paragraphs 1 and 2).
•The competent authorities must, as a priority, adopt initiatives aimed at
promoting the prevention and reduction of amounts of waste generated and the
hazards it presents; in particular, they must develop clean technologies that
significantly reduce demand for natural resources (Article 3, paragraphs 1 and 2).
•Disposal must constitute only the residual phase of waste management
(Article 5, paragraph 1).
•A new waste classification system was introduced based on the origin and
hazardous nature of waste in particular (Article 5, paragraph 1):
Solid municipal waste «became urban waste».
«Special waste» kept its classification.
«Toxic and noxious waste» became known simply as «hazardous waste».
•With a view to standardised management of municipal waste, the provinces are
considered the optimal areas for new legislation (Article 23).
•The current tax on waste, based on type of activity and cadastral income, was
replaced by a waste fee to apply as of 1/1/2000 and composed of a percentage
based on the essential components of the cost of service and a percentage
reflecting the quantity of waste produced (Article 49).
Objectives and timetable:
•As of 1/1/1999, the construction of new incineration facilities will be
authorised only if they incorporate energy recovery (Article 5, paragraph 4).
•As of 1/1/1999, non-hazardous waste must be disposed of in the region where
it is produced (Article 5, paragraph 5).
•As of 1/1/2000, only inert waste, waste characterised on the basis of specific
technical standards and waste resulting from recycling, recovery and disposal
operations may be landfilled (Article 5, paragraph 6).
•All the optimal territorial areas must sort a minimum percentage of their
municipal waste according to the timetable below (Article 24):
15% within two years of the entry into force of the Decree (2/3/1999).
25% within four years of the entry into force of the Decree (2/3/2001).
35% within seven years of the entry into force of the Decree (2/3/2003).

85%

75%

65%

15%

25%

35%

1999

2001

2003

20%

Unsorted waste

Sorted waste

Media-Com _25

The regulatory context in Ireland

In 1996, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a report on the state
of the environment in Ireland. This report highlighted an increase in the production
of all types of waste, a low rate of recycling (8%) and disposal of 92% of waste in
landfills. At that time, Ireland had 118 active landfills, of which 88 were managed
by local authorities. Most landfills were small and accept less than 15,000 tonnes of
waste per year. They were usually operated under unsatisfactory conditions.
The Waste Management Act of 1996 provided a new legal foundation for waste
management in Ireland. In particular, it redefined the distribution of
responsibilities among the Ministry, the EPA and local authorities, and set out a new
strategy for improving performance in the areas of prevention, minimisation and
recovery of waste. All landfills had henceforth to be authorised and meet stricter
environmental criteria, which led many operators to close their facilities. As of
March 1999, the EPA had authorised 64 landfills, including 52 for household waste.

Management of municipal
waste in 1995

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%

92%
8%

In October 1998, the Ministry of the Environment and Local Authorities published its
waste management plan, entitled «Changing Our Ways».
The plan provides local authorities with a national framework to help them redefine
their strategy and draft new plans for waste management. In Ireland, these local
authorities have general responsibility for waste management, including inspection of
processing facilities. In its plan, the government defines its objectives as follows:

Landfill

Recycling

•a 50% reduction overall in the amount of household waste landfilled and a 65%
reduction for organic waste;
•development of environmentally friendly industrial facilities, in particular
composting facilities, with a view to processing 300,000 tonnes of
biodegradable waste annually;
•recycling of 35% of household waste;
•recycling of at least 50% of construction waste within five years and 85% within
15 years.
This management plan is based on a regional approach to waste management
emphasising the development of integrated solutions and creating a climate
favourable to partnership between local authorities and the private sector.
It encourages local authorities to find solutions to the shortage of processing
infrastructure and to identify innovative technologies such as composting,
anaerobic digestion, incineration with energy recovery or gasification.
Local authorities have responded very favourably to this programme, and as of
early 1999, 32 of a total of 34 authorities had begun or completed the process of
definition of a new waste management strategy.
In general, these strategies are based on door-to-door collection of recyclable
waste in urban areas; the development of voluntary drop-off infrastructures;
centres for transfer, sorting, recycling and energy recovery; and biological
processing of organic waste. The consequences for the existing network have
been overwhelming: five local authorities, for example, plan to reduce the
number of landfills from 35 to 18 and eventually 10.

Objectives to be achieved within 15 years
- Reduction in quantity of household waste
landfilled: 50 %
- Reduction in quantity of organic waste
landfilled: 65%
- Composting capacity: 300,000 tonnes/year
- Recycling of municipal waste: 35%
- Recycling of construction waste: 85%
- Modernisation of the landfill network:
20 authorised landfills

Media-Com _26

The regulatory context in the United Kingdom

Management of municipal
waste in 1995

100%

Landfill 84%

Waste management in the United Kingdom was widely and for a long time based on
landfilling: in 1994, the country still had 2,784 active landfills. The Department of
the Environment estimates that during 1994 and 1995, production of household
waste exceeded 25 million tonnes. The United Kingdom is also distinguished by a
breakdown of authority between District Councils, which are responsible for
collecting household waste, and County Councils, which have responsibility for
processing it.

80%

A redistribution of powers

20%

Recycling 8%

40%

Incineration 8%

60%

The Environmental Protection Act of 1990 marked an important change, by
encouraging local authorities to introduce recycling and to subcontract waste
treatment to the lowest bidder via calls for tenders. The Environment Act of 1995
brought additional measures:
•setting the goal of recovery of 50% of packaging waste by the year 2001, with a
minimum rate of 16% for each material;
•abrogation of all waste management plans defined by local authorities and
encouragement of District Councils and County Councils to co-operate in
developing new waste management strategies;
•creation of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to become, along with
the County Councils, the competent authority for waste treatment. The EPA is
in particular responsible for establishing statistics on waste production,
authorising and inspecting treatment facilities. The District Councils remain
responsible for collecting waste.
The national waste management plan, known as «Making Waste Work» and
published in 1996, emphasises recycling and recovery of household waste. Its
objective is to reduce the quantities of waste landfilled by 60 to 70%. Composting
is an important part of the plan: the goal is to compost one million tonnes of
organic household waste and encourage 40% of households with a garden to
compost at home by the year 2000. These are ambitious, but not binding,
objectives.
Landfill revenues to finance prevention
The leading instrument for achieving this objective is taxation: a tax of £ 2 is
levied on each tonne of inert waste landfilled; the rate for «non-inert» waste was
originally set at £ 7. It increased to £ 10 in 1999 and will reach £ 15 by 2004.
Remarkably, 20% of revenue from the tax will be used to finance environmental
projects and in particular awareness and information campaigns implemented by
NGOs. In addition, the «Waste Minimisation Act» of 1998 authorises local
authorities that wish to do so to promote the minimisation of waste by means of
consumer awareness campaigns or partnership agreements with the private sector.
In 1997, the UK adopted the «Producer Responsibility Obligations Regulation» in
application of Directive 94/62 on packaging. On certain conditions, this
Regulation requires companies that put more than 50 tonnes of packaging on the
market each year to recover it, bringing the rates of recycling and recovery to 13
and 45% respectively by the year 2000. Companies must furnish certificates of
recycling issued by authorised facilities and a system of trade and marketing of
these certificates, modelled on the system of negotiable permits, has gradually
been introduced. A new draft strategy concerning waste was submitted for public
approval for the first time in 1998 before being adapted and presented again as
second draft in June 1999.

The objectives defined in
«Making Waste Work»
- A 60 to 70% reduction in waste landfilled
by 2005
- Recycling and recovery of 40% of
municipal waste by 2005
- Recycling of 25% of municipal waste by 2000
- Recovery of 50% of packaging waste by 2001
- Composting of one million tonnes of
organic waste years by 2001
- Promotion of composting by 75% of local
authorities by 2000

Media-Com _27

The regulatory context in Spain

Spain must reconcile three levels of power before it can take action concerning
waste. The State defines the general legal framework and drafts a management
plan. The 17 Autonomous Communities are responsible for putting this plan into
practice and defining their own management plan; they may always take more
binding measures. Municipalities take charge of management of household waste in
co-operation with the autonomous authority to which they are responsible.

Processing of household waste:
situation in 1995
Recycling 0%
Composting 14%
Energy
recovery 5%

The processing hierarchy
Law 11 of 24 April 1997 on packaging and packaging waste introduced a
hierarchy of various options for managing waste. This hierarchy was confirmed in
Law 10 of 21 April 1998 concerning all types of waste. This law applies to all
economic operators, promotes strict application of the «polluter pays» and
«shared responsibility» principles and defines the major environmental objective
of minimising the growing volume of waste at the source, recycling all possible
materials, reusing those that can be reused, composting in an organic manner
and recovering energy from the remaining waste to reduce the amount that ends
up in a landfill to a minimum.
Developing prevention and recycling, and creating the necessary synergies
among all the actors
These two texts marked a fundamental change of direction for Spain's waste
policy and paved the way for prevention and recycling initiatives. Companies that
put more than a certain quantity of packaging on the market every year must,
every three years, draft a prevention plan, with the objective of a 10% reduction
in the weight of packaging from 1994-95 levels by 2001.
The national waste management plan may be implemented via agreements
between the state and the autonomous communities that define the objectives of
reduction, reuse, recycling and recovery, as well as the means implemented to
achieve them. The autonomous communities may take financial and tax measures
to stimulate prevention and promote clean technologies, reuse, recycling and
other forms of recovery of waste.
Law 10/98 makes sorting of household waste compulsory for municipalities with
more than 5,000 residents.
The law also requires producers to become involved in management of waste from
products they have put on the market via voluntary agreements approved by
public authorities. This obligation currently applies to packaging waste and endof-life vehicles.
Objectives for 30 June 2001 as concerns packaging waste are:
•50 to 65% recovery;
•between 25 and 45% recycling with a minimum of 15% for each material.
An intermediate objective - recycling of 15% of packaging waste by 1 April 2000
with a minimum of 10% per material - has also been set.

Landfill 81%

Media-Com _28

Energie-Cités

Secretariat
2 Chemin de Palente
F- 25000 Besançon
Tel + 33 3 81653680
Fax + 33 3 81507351
E-mail: *@energie-cites.org
site web : www.energie-cites.org
Brussels Office
29, Rue Paul Emile Janson
B- 1050 Bruxelles
Tel + 32 2 544 09 21
Fax + 32 2 544 15 81
E-mail : energie-cites.bxl@euronet.be

Energie-Cités is an association of municipalities whose first priority is to promote local energy
policies which are both sustainable and integrated. The association has involved about 150
municipalities in its projects and has more than 90 members from all the countries
of the European Union. Energie-Cités objectives include the strengthening of the role of
municipalities in energy efficiency, the promotion of renewable energy and the protection of
the environment, to promote debate on the policies and initiatives of the European Union in
these fields and to develop municipal initiatives by exchange of experience, transfer of knowhow and the setting up of joint projects.
Energie-Cités activities are primarily:
- The dissemination of information on Community policies and decisions, municipal best
practice and transfer of know-how.
- Monitoring innovative municipal practice and in particular gathering information on best
practice, preparation of joint analyses and opinions.
- Organisation of events and in particular an annual international seminar on a current theme
(the next seminar will take place on 6-7th April 2000 in Verona, (Italy) on the theme of
renewable energy in urban areas).

ACR - AVR Association of Cities for Recycling

ASSOCIATION OF CITIES
FOR RECYCLING
ASSOCIATION DES VILLES
POUR LE RECYCLAGE

ACR - Association of Cities for Recycling
Gulledelle, 100, B - 1200 Bruxelles
Tel.: +32 2 775 77 01 - Fax: +32 2 775 76 35
E-mail: acr@ibgebim.be

In order to achieve a significant improvement in the ecological and economic efficiency of the
management of urban waste, the Association of Cities of Recycling aims at gathering all
concerned parties and promoting the exchange of information among them, notably on :
- technical data on recycling operations, including markets for secondary materials
- methods of communication, education and public awareness
- legal, economic or voluntary instruments relating to recycling.
The ACR-AVR is an international association with a pedagogic and scientific aim.
Besides the annual General Meeting of the members, the Association is composed of the
following bodies :
- the Board of Directors
- the Support Committee, composed of all the members who have an electoral mandate
- The Secretariat, the Association's permanent focal point, collects, centralizes and circulates
the information.
The Association of Cities for Recycling provides its members with the following services :
- access to an international network of actors involved in urban waste management
- a regular Newsletter
- free technical reports
- participation in the works of the Association and in the annual General Meeting.

Consorzio Agrital Ricerche

Consorzio Agrital Ricerche
Viale dell'Industria, 24
00057 Maccarese - Roma I
Tel.: + 39 06 667 8357 - Fax: + 39 06 667 8312
E-mail: posta@agrital.ccr.it

The Consortium set up in 1987 on initiative of Scientific Organizations, Public Bodies and
Enterprises in order to promote a wider cooperation between University and Industry in the
research sector. AGRITAL aims at supporting, planning and carrying out activities of research,
experimentation, analysis, training and spreading of a permanent character and aimed at the
scientific, technological and productive development of the extended primary sector:
agriculture, zootechnics and forestry.
AGRITAL RICERCHE is a non profit-making company. Its own activities have been supported by:
- FAO
- European Union
- Ministry of University and Scientific Research
- National Council for Scientific research
- Private Industries

This work has been carried out with the support of the European Commission
Directorate-General Environment as part of the Media-Com project.


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