Agenda 21 - Chapter 1
1.1. Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. We are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities
between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the
continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. However,
integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the
fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems
and a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but together we can - in a
global partnership for sustainable development.
1.2. This global partnership must build on the premises of General Assembly resolution 44/228 of 22
December 1989, which was adopted when the nations of the world called for the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, and on the acceptance of the need to take a balanced
and integrated approach to environment and development questions.
1.3. Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the
challenges of the next century. It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest
level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost
the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in
achieving this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this
context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and subregional
organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the
active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be
1.4. The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 will require a substantial flow of new
and additional financial resources to developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for
the actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate
sustainable development. Financial resources are also required for strengthening the capacity of
international institutions for the implementation of Agenda 21. An indicative order-of-magnitude
assessment of costs is included in each of the programme areas. This assessment will need to be
examined and refined by the relevant implementing agencies and organizations.
1.5. In the implementation of the relevant programme areas identified in Agenda 21, special attention
should be given to the particular circumstances facing the economies in transition. It must also be
recognized that these countries are facing unprecedented challenges in transforming their economies,
in some cases in the midst of considerable social and political tension.
1.6. The programme areas that constitute Agenda 21 are described in terms of the basis for action,
objectives, activities and means of implementation. Agenda 21 is a dynamic programme. It will be
carried out by the various actors according to the different situations, capacities and priorities of
countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development. It could evolve over time in the light of changing needs and
circumstances. This process marks the beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable
* When the term "Governments" is used, it will be deemed to include the European Economic Community within its
areas of competence. Throughout Agenda 21 the term "environmentally sound" means "environmentally safe and
sound", in particular when applied to the terms "energy sources", "energy supplies", "energy systems" and "technology"