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Photovoltaic For Dummies .pdf



Nome del file originale: Photovoltaic For Dummies.pdf

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Contents at a Glance
Introduction ................................................................ 1
Part I: Here Comes the Sun: Shedding
Some Light on PV Systems ............................................ 7
Chapter 1: The Photovoltaic Revolution ........................................................................ 9
Chapter 2: Checking Out Common Components and Systems .................................. 21
Chapter 3: Powering through Electricity Basics .......................................................... 35
Chapter 4: Warming Up to the Solar Resource ............................................................ 57
Chapter 5: Properly Selecting a Site for a PV System.................................................. 79

Part II: Digging into Complete System Details ............. 99
Chapter 6: PV Modules: From Sand to Electricity ..................................................... 101
Chapter 7: The Basics of Batteries .............................................................................. 121
Chapter 8: Keeping Current and Voltage in Check: Charge Controllers ................. 139
Chapter 9: Inverters: AC (From) DC ............................................................................ 149
Chapter 10: Staying Secure: Wiring and Safety Components ................................... 163

Part III: Sizing a PV System ..................................... 177
Chapter 11: Sizing a Grid-Direct System ..................................................................... 179
Chapter 12: Sizing a Battery-Based System ................................................................ 203
Chapter 13: Sizing Conductors, Conduit, and Safety Components ......................... 229

Part IV: Installing a PV System ................................ 247
Chapter 14: The Permitting Process ........................................................................... 249
Chapter 15: Staying Safe Anytime You Work on a PV System.................................. 261
Chapter 16: Assembling the Mechanical Parts .......................................................... 279
Chapter 17: Integrating the Electrical Elements ........................................................ 301
Chapter 18: Commissioning, Inspecting, and Maintaining a PV System ................. 319

Part V: The Part of Tens ........................................... 341
Chapter 19: Ten Ways to Avoid Common Code Mistakes ........................................ 343
Chapter 20: Ten Ways to Maximize Energy Production for Your Clients ............... 349

Index ...................................................................... 355

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xii

Photovoltaic Design & Installation For Dummies
Reviewing Common Types of PV Modules ............................................... 104
Checking out crystalline modules ................................................... 105
Looking at thin film modules ............................................................ 107
Pointing Out Electrical Specifications on PV Modules ........................... 109
Current specifications ....................................................................... 110
Voltage specifications ....................................................................... 111
Maximum power point ...................................................................... 112
Voltage temperature coefficient ...................................................... 113
Power tolerance ................................................................................. 114
Series fuse rating................................................................................ 114
Surveying Test Conditions for PV Modules ............................................. 114
Standard test conditions................................................................... 115
Environmental effects on standard test conditions ...................... 116
Relating Current and Voltage in IV Curves ............................................... 118
An IV curve with varying temperature ............................................ 119
An IV curve with varying irradiance ................................................ 120

Chapter 7: The Basics of Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
The Fundamentals of Battery Anatomy and Operation .......................... 122
Constructing a battery, from cell to bank....................................... 122
Discovering how batteries charge and discharge ......................... 124
Comparing Different Types of Batteries ................................................... 126
Lead-acid batteries ............................................................................ 127
Lead-calcium batteries ...................................................................... 129
Nickel-cadmium batteries ................................................................. 130
Comprehending Battery Capacity ............................................................. 130
Considering the C rate for capacity................................................. 131
Recognizing factors that affect capacity ......................................... 132
Specifying Batteries ..................................................................................... 134
Specifying the type of battery to use .............................................. 134
Specifying the battery bank size ...................................................... 135

Chapter 8: Keeping Current and Voltage in Check:
Charge Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
The Essentials of Charge Controllers........................................................ 140
Seeing how a charge controller works in stages............................ 140
Surveying special effects provided by some charge controllers ..... 143
Maximum Power Point Tracking Technology .......................................... 144
How MPPT works ............................................................................... 145
The pros and cons of MPPT controllers ......................................... 146
Pulse-Width Modulation Technology........................................................ 147
How PWM works ................................................................................ 147
The pros and cons of PWM controllers .......................................... 147
Specifying a Charge Controller .................................................................. 148

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xviii

Photovoltaic Design & Installation For Dummies

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Part I

Here Comes the Sun:
Shedding Some
Light on PV Systems

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